The Harrapan Civilization

The Free essays given on our site were donated by anonymous users and should not be viewed as samples of our custom writing service. You are welcome to use them to inspire yourself for writing your own term paper. If you need a custom term paper related to the subject of Archaeology or The Harrapan Civilization , you can hire a professional writer here in just a few clicks.
The Harrapan Civilization The Indus Valley, or Harrapan, civilization was discovered in 1920-21 when engraved seals were discovered near present-day Sahiwal in Pakistani Punjab at a place called Harappa. Excavations at Mohenjodaro in Sind discovered the buried remains of a civilization with a pictographic script. The Harappans first settled sites along the Indus River. This civilization extended to the Yamuna along the bed of the river Ghaggar in Rajhastan, Gujrat and up to the mouths of the rivers Narbada and Tapati. The Harappan culture extended from the Indus Valley through northeastern Afghanistan, on into Turkestan. Most of the major sites of this civilization are in Pakistan. In fact it is in Pakistan that an earlier phase of it has also been unearthed. This happened between 1955-57 when a Pakistani archaeologist, F.A.Khan, discovered a town of the pre-Indus period 3300 to 2800 BC at Kot Diji in Khairpur, Sind. Such sites were also discovered by Rafique Mughal in Bahawalpur, in the Cholistan desert, extending the area of this culture to the whole of southern Pakistan. The first appearance of this civilization was the early Harappan/Ravi Phase. This Ravi Phase, named after the nearby Ravi River, lasted from approximately 3300 BC, or even 3500 BC, to 2800 BC. This phase is related to the Hakra Phase, identified in the Ghaggar-Hakra river valley to the west, and predates the Kot Diji Phase (2800 -2600 BC), named after a site in northern Sindh near Mohenjo-daro. Increasing knowledge of the Ravi and Kot Diji Phase occupations at Harappa, and of contemporary settlements throughout northwestern South Asia, permits glimpses of later Indus Civilization. Some of the most exciting discoveries in Ravi Phase levels have been of early writing. The origins of the Indus script-like signs dates from 3300-2800 BC. This would make the origins of writing in South Asia approximately the same time as in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. The Indus Valley civilization is traditionally broken down into three more Harrapan Phase, from 2600 to 1900 BC, a Harrapan transitional period, 1900 to 1700 BC, and the late Harrapan period, 1700 to 1300 BC. Archaeological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Dravidians were the founders of the Harappan culture. The Harappan civilization was twice the size the Old Kingdom of Egypt. They had trade relations with Mesopotamia, Iran, and the Central Asian peoples. The Mature Harappan civilization is divided into two cultures, the Sorath Harappan and the Sindhi Harappan. The Sindhi Harappan sites are sites characterized by elaborate architecture, fired brick construction, sewage systems and stamp seals. The Sorath Harappan sites lack stamp seals, ornaments and elaborate architecture. The Harappans were organized into chiefdoms, averaging between two and five acres. The Harappans were sedentary-pastoral people organized into various trades, such as, sailor-fishermen, smiths, merchants and farmers. The Harappans also possessed the social technology of writing seals. The Harappans were find engineers and craftsmen. They cultivated wheat, barley and millet. The Harappans had a highly developed grain storage system. They built large cities with complex drain systems under the streets of some of their cities. The Dravidians/Harrapans built the first major port in Lothol. Lothal was situated at the head of the Gulf of Cambay in Gujarat. Here

Our inspirational collection of essays and research papers is available for free to our registered users

Related Essays on Archaeology

Burial Ceremonialism

Throughout the course of human history, anthropological findings have assisted archeologists in creating an excellent archeological record. Findings such as burial ceremonialism and certain...

Stonehenge

Many have wondered about the mystery of Stonehenge, what was it for, and how was it was erected. There are gigantic stones that weigh thirty to forty short tons (a unit of weight equal to 2,000 pou...

Home Bases And Early Hominids

“Home Bases and Early Hominids” is an article that looks at the earlier studies that suggests early hominids living in home bases and the new studies that may suggest different. The ...

Ice Age Extinctions Of The Megafauna

Lisa Gantenbein ANTH 365U March 15, 2000 ICE AGE EXTINCTIONS OF THE MEGAFAUNA During the last Ice Age before humans arrived, the North American continent belonged to various forms of en...

The Ethical Dilemma Of The Indian Barial Contoversy

Grave desecration has been experiences in the United States for nearly two hundred tears without respect to Native Indians first amendment rights to freedom of religion. Indian spirituality...

The Hunter Gatherer Era

The Stone Age was a time early in the development of human cultures before the use of metals when tools and weapons were made of stone, and human food was mainly produced from hunting and g...

https://rs-clinic.com.ua

https://velotime.com.ua

липосакция