Arts: Music/ Music Therapy term paper 15030

Arts: Music term papers
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Music therapy is the systematic application of music

in the treatment of thephysiological and psychosocial aspects of an illness or disability.

It focuseson the acquisition of nonmusical skills and behaviors, as determined by a

board certified music therapist through systematic assessment and treatment


Music therapy in the United States of America began in the late 18th century.

However, using music as a healing medium dates back to ancient times. This

is evident in biblical scriptures and historical writings of ancient civilizations

such as Egypt, China, India, Greece and Rome. Today, the power of music

remains the same but music is used much differently than it was in ancient times.

The profession of music therapy in the United States began to develop during

W.W.I when music was used in Veterans Administration Hospitals as an

intervention to address traumatic war injuries. Veterans actively and passively

engaged in music activities that focused on relieving pain perception. Numerous

doctors and nurses witnessed the effect music had on veterans' psychological,

physiological, cognitive, and emotional state. Since then, colleges and universities

developed programs to train musicians how to use music for therapeutic purposes.

In 1950 a professional organization was formed by a collaboration of music

therapists that worked with veterans,mentally retarded, hearing/visually impaired,

and psychiatric populations This was the birth of the National Association for

Music Therapy (NAMT). In 1998, NAMT joined forces with another music

therapy organization to become what is now known as the American Music

Therapy Association (AMTA).The American Music Therapy Association has specific curriculum requirements

including courses in research analysis, physiology, acoustics, psychology and music

and therapy; currently there are 68 undergraduate and 25 graduate programs

approved by the association across the nation. Upon completing the academic

program at either the bachelor s or master s level, a 6-month internship is required

at an AMTA approved clinical training site. Graduates must subsequently pass a

comprehensive examination administered by an independent certifying body, the

Certification Board for Music Therapists (CBMT), to earn the MT-BC credential

which needs to be maintained by taking continuing education courses in Music

Therapy and in related fields. Currently there are about 6000 certified music

therapists in North America.

Where do Music Therapists Work?

Music therapists work with over 60 different populations in nearly 60 different

settings, and the role of music therapy is still expanding. Common settings for music

therapy include psychiatric hospitals, rehabilitation facilities, medical hospitals,

outpatient clinics, day care treatment centers, residences for developmentally

disabled persons,community mental health centers, drug and alcohol programs,

senior centers, nursing homes, hospice programs, correctional facilities,

halfway houses, schools, and private practices.

Hospitalization can result not only in physical

stress from invasive treatments and therapies,but emotional stress as well from

unexpected news, unfamiliar environments, inability to conduct normal activities and

lack of control. Music therapy in the medical setting provides patients a familiar and

positive way to cope with their hospitalization.Through successful music experiences,

patients can regain a sense of control, independence, and confidence. Music can be a

medium of communication and a strategy for refocusing attention during painful

procedures or long treatments such as hemodialysis, and a source of emotional

support. Music is clinically recognized to influence biological responses such as

heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, cardiac output, muscle tone,

pupillary responses, skin responses, the immune system, and endorphin

production. Music can entrain the body to calm or to accelerate depending on

what type of music is used. Sedative music can lower anxiety, pain, tension and

stress levels resulting in less use of anesthetics and pain medication, a shorter

recovery period, higher patient compliance and higher patient and family

satisfaction. Stimulative music can be a source of motivation both physically

and psychologically and becomes a positive reinforcement during physical

therapy and rehabilitation. In summary, Music therapy can contribute

significantly to medical care providing psychological and physical comfort

to patients with various needs.


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