Arnold Sch nberg
Arnold Sch nberg was born September 13, 1874 in Austria: died on Los Angeles July 13, 1951. Arnold was an American citizen as of 1941. He began violin lessons when he was eight and almost immediately started to compose. Berlin was very important for Sch nberg's further artistic development. In 1902, he received on Richard Strauss' recommendation the popular Liszt-scholarship as well as a, apprenticeship at the Stern conservatory. Before returning to Vienna in 1903, he composed the symphonic poem "Pelleas und Melisande" op 5, where the limits of tonality were appreciably extended.
Sch nberg revolutionized modern music by establishing the 12-tone technique of SERIAL MUSIC as an important organizational device. After the end of the war, Sch nberg founded the "Verein f r musikalische Privatauff hrungen" (society for private music performances), a new forum for modern music. The goal was to create ideal preconditions for the performance of contemporary works.
After Hitler's take-over in 1933, Sch nberg was dismissed from the Berlin academy. He emigrated with his wife and his daughter at first to Paris, where he was converted to Jewish faith (Marc Chagall was his witness), then to the USA, where he worked as musical educator at the Malkin Conservatory in Boston, Massachusetts. In 1934, he moved to Los Angeles, gave private lessons and lectures at the University of Southern California (USC) and held a chair at the University of California (UCLA) since 1936.
In 1940, Sch nberg became American citizen. Although his financial situation was very bad despite regular teaching, his application for the popular Guggenheim postgraduate scholarship was turned down and he had to continue to give private lessons also after his retirement.