Praying Mantis's

The Free essays given on our site were donated by anonymous users and should not be viewed as samples of our custom writing service. You are welcome to use them to inspire yourself for writing your own term paper. If you need a custom term paper related to the subject of Biology or Praying Mantis's , you can hire a professional writer here in just a few clicks.
MANTODEA Most commonly known as the Praying Mantis, order mantodea is a group of about 1800 carnivorous insects which prodominatley live in tropical regions of the earth. Though certain species can be found in locations with moderate climate. With an extremely striking appearence, mantids almost have human like qualities with the ability to hold an erect stance, and arms that face forward. A very efficient killer, mantids were created for hunting and killing prey. Order Mantodea is in the subclass Pterygota. As with all classifications there can be debates on where certain orders or species belong. Historically there has been some confusion on whether Mantodea deserves there own order. Some experts have placed Mantodea in the dictyoptera order along with cock roaches (Ramel 1996, Jaques 1981, Phoenix Zoo). Others say mantids belong in Orthoptera, which consists of grasshoppers. Experts say this is due to their large pro notum (Stokes 1983, Borror and White 1970). The emerging consensus around the position of Mantodea believes Mantodea constitute their own independent order of insects. Mantids can be characterized by their triangular head, and filiform antennae. This head has the ability to turn 180 degrees. With their prominate pair of compound eyes located on Peters 2 the sides of the head, the mantis can almost see 360 degree’s around. However the sharpest vision is located in the compound eye’s center, for the mantis to optimaly see objects it must turn its head so that the eye is facing the object. These eyes are extremely sensitive to light, changing from light green or tan in bright light, to dark brown in the dark. The prothorax of the mantis is another aid in giving them their distintive appearence. This prothorax has the ability to bend and twist which aids in the mantids ability to see close to 360 degrees around. The two long “raptorial” front legs are adapted to seize and hold prey. The coxa connects the tibia which has sharp spines to firmly hold prey. The femur has matching groves where the spine on the tibia fold into. This creates a “jack knife” effect that allows the insect to assume it’s distinctive praying position. The other four legs of the mantis are designed for locomotion. These legs can regenerate if broken, but only in the molting process. These limbs that regenerate are always smaller than they were originally. A full grown adult that no longer molts no longer possess the ability to regenerate limbs. The front “raptorial” limbs do not regenerate if broken. Because of their large bulky bodies mantids are fairly weak flyers. They have four pairs of wings. The first pair are leathery tegmina wings that lay over the inner pair. The Peters 3 mambrenous inner pair are folded under the first pair and are used for flight and to startle enemies. The large segmented abdomen houses the digestive system and reproductive organs. The male mantis has 8 segments, and the females are born with 8 segments as well. But with each succesive molt in the female the last two segments begin to overlap resulting with 6 segments left. Sixty percent of mantid species possess an ultrasonic ear on the under side of the metathorax, especially those that have wings. The mantid is an “auditory cyclops”, which means it only has one ear. The ear is 1mm long with cuticle like knobs at either end and two ear drums buried inside. The ear is specially tuned to very high ultrasonic freqeuncies of sound waves from 25 to 65 kilohertz. Apparently, the ears primary purpose is designed to respond to the ultrasonic echo-location signal used by hunting bats. The mantis primarily uses its ultrasonic ears while in flight. When a mantis senses a bat’s ultrasonic echo at close range, it curls it’s abdomen upwards and thrusts its legs outward creating a drag and resulting in a sudden aerial stall. This flight manuever of the mantis creates an unpredictable flight pattern for the bat, and is very effective at avoiding hungry bats. There are three ways to distinguish between female and male mantodea. The male has 8 segments, while the female has Peters 4 The second is size, the female is always bigger than the male. The third is behavior, the male mantis is more prone to take flight in search of a mate, while the female often remains stationary. Mantids are extremely predacious feeders, only eating live prey, or prey that is moving, and hence appears alive. Varying on the species, you can see what diet preferences are. Some species only eat “soft bodied bugs”, insects that can be easily devoured. While some species will eat anything from small birds to reptiles. Mantids are diurnal, which means they eat primarily during the day. An attacking mantid “undulates”, and sways just before a strike. Some experts believe this swaying action mimics the movement of the surrounding folliage due to gusts of wind. Others believe this swaying aids in the mantid visually focusing on the prey. Mantids hunt by the “sit and wait” method or by the slow stalk method. The “sit and wait” can sometimes take hours, waiting for an unsuspecting victim to come within an arms length. The slow stalk method is pretty self explanitory. Mantids attack by “pinching”, impaling prey between its spiked lower tibia and upper femur. The mantids strike takes an amazing 30 to 50 one-thousanth of a second. The strike is so fast it can’t be proccessed by the human brain. Once the prey is secured with its legs the mantid chews at the preys neck. If well fed, the mantid will selectively choose to eat certain Peters 5 parts of its prey and discard the rest. If any part of the prey is dropped while feeding the mantis will not retrieve it. After feeding, they will often use their mouth to clean the food particles from the spines of it’s tibia, and then wipe their face clean similar to cats. The cannibalistic instincts of mantids are probably what give order mantodea a reputation for being such cold hearted killers. All stages of growth partake in cannibalistic activities, from nymph to adult, whether adult eats nymph or nymph eats nymph. After mating the female will often eat her mate. Between 5-31% of males get devoured during the mating process. A female mantis already heavy with eggs will excrete a chemical attractant to tempt a willing male into mating. The horny and always willing male will almost always get sucked in. The males sperm cells are stored in the spermatheca of the female. The female can begin to lay her eggs as early as the day after fertilization. As the eggs pass through her reproductive system, they are fertilized by the stored sperm. After finding a raised location, like a branch or stem, special appendages at the base of the abdomen (ventral valve maybe) create a gelatinous egg material into the shape characteristic of the particular species as it exits her ovipositor. The egg laying process takes 3 to 5 hours long. By instinct the female twists her abdomen in a spiral motion to create chambers within the ootheca. The egg case then hardens Peters 6 into a paper mache like substance that is resistant to pests who would try and eat it. There are small air pockets between each cell of the ootheca which aids in insulation against cold winters. There can be anywhere from 30 to 300 eggs laid in a sitting. Often times the female dies after her final birthing. The life-cycle of the North American mantid species runs from spring to fall. When spring time temperatures become favorable the mantid nymphs emerge from the ootheca. They drop towards the ground on a thin strand of stringy material produced by a special gland in their body. Mantid nymphs are hemimetabolous. Mantid nymphs appear like small adults, but without fully-formed wings. Nymphs go through 6 to 7 molts before they reach adulthood. Emerging nymphs feed on whatever small insects they can get their claws on, including their brothers and sisters. The primary enemies to mantids are spiders, birds, snakes, mammals(especially bats), and man. The mantis has four primary methods for defense. The mantids green and brown exo-skeleton color help aid in camouflage. The mantids ability to stand perfectly still for extremely long periods of time cause it to be over looked by predators. When confronted by an enemy the mantis asumes the “startle display”, rearing it’s fore legs up and spread apart, and rattling its wings. The ultrasonic ear is also a form of defense for the mantis. Insect Pest Management or IPM is a subject of research Peters 7 that is really starting to take notice throughout the world. It’s becoming apparent that the over use of chemical pesticides is ruining our Earths ecology. Finding alternative methods of pest control besides the use of pesticides is imperative if we expect to keep this planet in good condition. Numerous cases of IPM have been initiated and have proved to work. The praying mantis plays an important role in nature’s insect pest control plan. The praying mantis is one of the few predators with that are fast enough to catch mosquitos and flies while their in flight. Moth populations are also controlled by mantids. There are three common species of mantids found in North America. The European mantis (Mantis religiosa), the Chinese mantis (Tenodera aridifolia sinesis), and the Carolina mantis (Stagmomantis carolina). The European mantis is usually 2-3 inches in length, and has a consistently bright green color. These are distinguished as the only of the three species that bear a black-ringed spot beneath the fore coxae. The European mantids are most often found east of The Mississippi River. It is said that the European mantids were first introduced into North America in Rochester New York in 1899 on a shipment of nursery plants. The Chinese mantis is the largest of the three native to North America reaching lengths up to five inches. This species is mostly light brown with a dull green trim around its wings. The Chinese mantis can be found throughout the United States. Peters 8 The Chinese mantis arrived in 1895 on nursery stock sent to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Carolina mantis is the smallest of the three never reaching a length greater than 2 inches. This mantis has a dusky brown or gray color to blend in with the pine forests and and sandhills of Southeastern part of the U.S. An interesting feature of the Carolina mantis is that the wings which only extend 3/4 of the way down the abdomen. There are many my

Our inspirational collection of essays and research papers is available for free to our registered users

Related Essays on Biology

Where Have They Gone?

For many reasons the human race could be called a blessing. Great advanced in technology, medicine and even the fact we are the most sophisticated species on the planet. Are we a gift to pl...

Whales

Blue Whales The Blue whale is the largest creature of the sea; in fact, it’s the largest creature known to man. Contrary to what most people think, even though Blue whales live in the sea...

Study On Rana Pipiens

Leopard Frog - Rana Pipiens Distribution: Found throughout Ontario but more abundant in southern and central Americas. Range: Adults maintain small home ranges (up to 500 m2) in fields or...

Bioethics In A Brave New World

Bioethics in Alodus Huxley s A Brave New World Biology is the science of living things, but with the advancements in the fields of technology many moral questions raise the eyebrows of the biologi...

New Reproductive Technologies

During the debate on March 15, 2000 which discussed new reproductive technologies (NRTS) issues were raised regarding the positive and negative effects of NRTS. Issues raised by the advocates of NRT...

Bioethics

BIOETHICS Progress in the pharmacological, medical and biological sciences involves experimentation on all living species, including animals and humans. The effectiveness of medications investigati...

http://maxformer.com

magazinpoliva.kiev.ua/dla-poliva

piercing places