Biology/Genetics term paper 42272

Biology term papers
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Introduction

Genetics can be defined as a biological science of hereditary and variation in living organisms. The fact that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crop plants and animals through selective breeding. However, the modern science of genetics, which seeks to understand the process of inheritance, only began with the work of Gregor Mendel in the mid-nineteenth century. Although he did not know the physical basis for heredity, Mendel observed that organisms inherit traits in a discrete manner�these basic units of inheritance are now called genes. (Anthony And Et al, 2007)

Anthony and Et al describes DNA as a molecular basis for inheritance. Each strand of DNA is a chain of nucleotides, matching each other in the center to form what look like rungs on a twisted ladder. (Anthony And Et al, 2007)

Genes correspond to regions within DNA, a molecule composed of a chain of four different types of nucleotides�the sequence of these nucleotides is the genetic information organisms inherit. DNA naturally occurs in a double stranded form, with nucleotides on each strand complementary to each other. Each strand can act as a template for creating a new partner strand�this is the physical method for making copies of genes that can be inherited. . (Anthony And Et al, 2007)

The sequence of nucleotides in a gene is translated by cells to produce a chain of amino acids, creating proteins�the order of amino acids in a protein corresponds to the order of nucleotides in the gene. This is known as the genetic code. The amino acids in a protein determine how it folds into a three-dimensional shape; this structure is, in turn, responsible for the protein's function. Proteins carry out almost all the functions needed for cells to live. A change to the DNA in a gene can change a protein's amino acids, changing its shape and function: this can have a dramatic effect in the cell and on the organism as a whole. (Anthony And Et al, 2007)

Although genetics plays a large role in the appearance and behavior of organisms, it is the combination of genetics with what an organism experiences that determines the ultimate outcome. For example, while genes play a role in determining a person's height, the nutrition and health that person experiences in childhood also have a large effect.( (Anthony and Et al ,2007)

Reference

Anthony J.F and Et al (2007) Introduction to Genetics, W.H Freeman Publishers

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