Civil War/ The Battle Of Bunker Hill term paper 16032

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The Battle of Bunker Hill

Boom, Bang, Crack! The sounds of muskets being fired, its ammunition

ricocheting off rocks and splintering trees are heard all around. The pungent smell of gun

powder stings the nose, and its taste makes the mouth dry and sticky. The battle is still

young, but blood soaked uniforms and dead or dying men can already be seen, causing the

fear of death to enter many of the soldiers' minds. It is remembered that freedom is what

the fight is for, so we must continue to gain independence. The battle has been going on

for a short time now, although vision is already obscured from all the smoke and dust in

the air. It is becoming increasingly difficult to breathe, with all of these air borne

substances entering my lungs. People are still being struck by musket balls for the cries of

agony rise above the many guns' explosions. This is how the battle to be known as

Bunker Hill began.

On June 17, 1775 the Battle of Bunker Hill took place. It is one of the most

important colonial victories in the U.S. War for Independence. Fought during the Siege of

Boston, it lent considerable encouragement to the revolutionary cause. This battle made

both sides realize that this was not going to be a matter decided on by one quick and

decisive battle.

The battle of Bunker Hill was not just an event that happened overnight. The

battle was the result of struggle and hostility between Great Britain and the colonies for

many years. Many of the oppressive feelings came as a result of British laws and

restrictions placed on them. It would not be true to say that the battle was the beginning

of the fight for independence. It is necessary to see that this was not a rash decision that

occurred because of one dispute, but rather that the feelings for the British had been

getting worse for a long time and were finally released.

Perhaps two of the most notable injustices, as perceived by the colonists, were the

Stamp Act and the Intolerable Acts. The Stamp Act was passed by the British Parliament

to raise money for repaying its war debt from the French and Indian War. The Act levied

a tax on printed matter of all kinds including newspapers, advertisements, playing cards,

and legal documents. The British government was expecting protest as result of the tax

but the level of outcry they received. The colonists were so angry because they had no

voice in Parliament which passed the law, thus came the famous cry, "No taxation without

representation!" The colonists would protest these laws with the Boston Tea Party. The

British responded to this open act of rebellion by imposing the Intolerable Acts, four laws

designed to punish Boston and the rest of Massachusetts while strengthening British

control over all the colonies.

These were not the only incidents that caused unrest to exist between the two

countries. There had been friction between British soldiers and colonists for some time

because of the Quartering Act, a law which required townspeople to house soldiers. This

unrest and tension resulted in the Boston Massacre, an event that resulted in colonists

death and both sides being more untrusting of each other. These feelings of discontent

and the growing fear of an uprising would lead the British to proceed to Leton and

Concord and destroy colonial military supplies. This left the colonists with the feeling of

hatred and total malice towards the British. Because of these incidents neither side trusted

the other, and had concerns that the opposition would launch an attack upon them.

When the British planned to occupy Dorchester Heights on the Boston Peninsula,

the colonists became alarmed at the build up of British troops off of the coast. The

colonists decided that action had to be taken so as to stop the threatening British

movement in this territory to protect themselves from an attack. It was because of this

last situation as well as the bad blood that had accumulated over the years, which would

lead the colonies into a confrontation with the British.

The Battle of Bunker Hill started when the colonists learned about the British plan

to occupy Dorchester Heights. The colonists were understandably shaken by this news.

They thought of this as the last straw, and they had to protect their land and freedom. A

crude "army" was made to defend the hill. The army was not a national one, for no nation

existed. Instead, the army was made up of men from Cambridge, New England,

Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island. Also, this hastily

combined force of men had no assigned commander in chief, but did what their revered

Generals instructed them to carry out.

On June 15, 1775 the American colonists heard news that the British planned to

control the Charleston peninsula between the Charles and Mystic Rivers. Bunker's and

Breed's Hill on this peninsula overlooked both Boston and its harbor, thus making the hills

critical vantage points. In order to beat the British to the high ground, General Prescott

took 1,200 of his often times undisciplined, disobedient, and sometimes intoxicated

soldiers to dig into and fortify Bunker Hill with the cover of night on June 16. When

dawn broke, the British were stunned to see Breed's Hill fortified overnight with a

160-by-30-foot earthen structure. The British General, Gage, dispatched 2,300 troops

under the command of Major General Howe to take control of the hill.

So it came to be that General Prescott did not actually fortify Bunker's Hill, but

Breed's Hill instead. How did this happen? One proposed idea is that Colonel William

Prescott, since fortifying the hill in the middle of the night, chose the wrong hill. Another

theory is that the map the Colonel used was incorrect, since many maps during this period

had commonly misidentified the hills. Another suggestion, and probably the most

practical, is that Breed's Hill is closer to where the British ships were positioned allowing

the colonists a better attacking position than at Bunker Hill. Regardless of the reason, the

Battle of Bunker Hill actually took place on Breed's Hill.

The fighting began as soon as the day did. As soon as the men on British frigate

awoke they opened fire on the colonial fortifications. Carol McCabe states that one

soldier wrote there would be firing for about twenty minutes, then a lull, then the ships

would start firing again. At about 3:00 PM Thomas Gage, the British commander,

ordered men to try and take control of the hill. It took Gage this long to issue a command

due to a shortage of boats and an unfavorable tide. Peter Brown, an American soldier,

would later write about this, “There was a matter of 40 barges full of Regulars coming

over to us; it is supposed there were about 3,000 of them and about 700 of us left not

deserted, besides 500 reinforcements. . . the enemy landed and fronted before us and

formed themselves in an oblong square. . . and after they were well formed they advanced

towards us, but they found a choakly [sic] mouthful of us.”

When the British forces were firmly established on the ground at the base of the

hill they proceeded to charge. The British just expected to march up the hill and just scare

the colonists away. The British Regulars advanced with bayonets fixed; many of their

muskets were not even loaded. The British troops, wearing their bright red wool jackets

and weighed down by heavy equipment, marched up hill over farm fields and low stone

walls hidden in the tall grass. As the colonists saw this massive red line approach slowly

and steadily, they remained calm and did not open fire. The fact they waited so long to

commence an attack was that General Prescott has been assumed to have given the

famous order, "Don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes." If this command was

given it would have been to either help preserve their already low ammunition supplies,

and to help keep the men from shooting out of their capable ranges.

Once the British came within range, the colonists began firing, and the British

soldiers stated to fall rapidly. The British forces were driven back twice, but on their third

and final thrust forward the British were able to break through the colonists' line,

overrunning the tentative American fortifications, thus taking the hill. The colonists had

run out of ammunition and supplies. The colonists fled back up the peninsula since it was

there only escape route. This battle, which lasted for approximately three hours, was one

of the deadliest of the Revolutionary War.

Although the British technically won the battle because they took control of the

hill, they suffered too many losses to fully benefit from it. The British had suffered more

than one thousand casualties out of the 2,300 or so who fought. While the colonists only

suffered 400 to 600 casualties from an estimated 2,500 to 4,000 men. Besides having

fewer deaths than the British, the colonists believe they had won in other ways as well.

The Americans had proved to themselves, and the rest of the world that they could stand

up to the British army in traditional warfare. And only a few days later, George

Washington would lead a group of men up to Dorchester Heights, aiming their cannons at

the British, and then watched the Red Coats retreat from the hill. So even though the

British had won the battle, it was a short lived victory since the colonists took control of

the hill again, but this time with more soldiers to defend it.

The Battle of Bunker Hill was important for a variety of reasons. The first one

being that it was the first battle of the Revolutionary War, and because of the fierce

fighting that defined the battle it foreshadowed that it was going to be a long, close war.

Another important event that came from the battle was that it allowed the American

troops to know that the British army was not invincible, and that they could defeat the

British in traditional warfare. The losses experienced on the British side also helped to

bolster the colonists confidence.

So it came to be that the Battle of Bunker Hill would be the foundation that the

colonists would look back to for the many battles that occurred during the American

Revolution. The first being that the British suffered heavy losses and would no longer

convinced of a victory when they went to battle the colonists.

Fifty years after the battle a movement began to rise in the young United States to

create a memorial to the battle atop Breed's Hill. So, the Bunker Hill Memorial

Association was formed and they bought fifteen acres of land atop of Breed's Hill. Then

in 1825 the cornerstone to the monument was laid.

Chronology of the battle

Time AMERICANS BRITISH

midnight Colonists begin construction of fortifications on Breeds Hill

4am British warships fire on the newly discovered fortification

2pm American reinforcements arrive; rail fence construction Begins. British

soldiers land on Moulton's point

3:30pm First battle is repulsed at the rail fence

4pm Second assault is repulsed at flashes and at redoubt

4:30pm Colonists withdraw. Final assault succeeds at redoubt

5:30pm End of battle

Bibliography

1. http://www.wpi.edu/Academics/Depts/MilSci/BTSI/hill/hill.html

2. http://www.greeceny.com/arm/welch/bunker.htm

3. http://www.bit-net.com/~ddillaby/bunker_hill.html

4. http://www.nps.gov/bost/bunkhill.htm

5. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 1996

Word Count: 1911

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