The civil War in Kentucky

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Introduction Kentucky was one of the "border states" in the Civil War, both geographically and politically. It was situated on the dividing line between the northern and southern regions of the United States. And it was one of only a few slave states that opted to stay in the Union. Though the Commonwealth was officially neutral, its citizens were deeply divided over the issues that caused the Civil War, and over the war itself -- a division symbolized by the fact that both Civil War presidents, Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis, were Kentucky native sons. (Lowell 1987) Kentucky's citizens were split regarding the issues central to the Civil War. In 1860, slaves composed 19.5% of the Commonwealth's population, and many Unionist Kentuckians saw nothing wrong with the peculiar institution. The Commonwealth was further bound to the South by the Mississippi River and its tributaries, which were the main commercial outlet for her surplus produce, although railroad connections to the North were beginning to diminish the importance of this tie. The ancestors of many Kentuckians hailed from Southern states like Virginia, North Carolina and Tennessee, but many Kentucky children were beginning to migrate toward the North. (Lowell 1987) Kentucky, along with North Carolina, also boasted the best educational systems in the South. Transylvania University had long been one of the most respected institutions of higher learning in the nation, and while its reputation had begun to fade by 1860, other Kentucky schools like Centre College and Georgetown College were gaining prominence. (Lowell 1987) Politically, Kentucky was proud of its role in preserving the Union. It was also proud that Commonwealth had produced some of the country's best known leaders. Former Vice-Presidents John C.Breckinridge and Richard M. Johnson both hailed from the Bluegrass state, as did Henry Clay and future president Abraham Lincoln. However, by the time of the Civil War, the Commonwealth was in a politically confused state. The decline of the Whig Party, which Clay had founded, had left many politicians looking for an identity. Many joined the increasingly popular Democratic Party; a few joined the newly-formed Republican Party, while still others associated with one of numerous minor parties such as the Known Nothing Party. (Lowell 1987) Through the work of the Great Compromiser, Kentucky Senator Henry Clay, conflict was prevented for more than 30 years, even though bitter feelings between the Northern and Southern states over tariffs, states' rights, and the slavery issue threatened to rip the country apart. At the time of the Civil War, the Kentucky governor, Beriah Magoffin, was a Southern sympathizer, while the representatives in the legislature supported the Union. When the time came for the legislature to vote whether to secede from the Union and join the Confederacy or agree to provide troops for the Federal army, the representatives voted to remain neutral, angering many Kentuckians who supported the South. (Lowell 1987) By law, Kentucky was a slave state. Kentucky was a source of slaves for the cotton plantations in the lower South, and the slave trade was a very profitable business for many Kentuckians. However, most Kentuckians did not own slaves. Those who did were wealthy plantation owners who stood to lose a lot if slavery were abolished. The major slave-owning areas and the people from these areas joined the Confederate army. (Lowell 1987) In 1861 and 1862, Kentucky saw a number of battles and skirmishes. By the end of 1862, after the battle of Perryville, Confederate forces retreated from the state. But the destruction caused by war was not over for Kentuckians. From December 1862 to January 1865, famous Confederate raids by John Hunt Morgan, Nathan Bedford Forrest, Quantrill, and "Sue" Mundy destroyed Union supply depots, bridges, county courthouses, and people's personal property. Kentucky also experienced a period of lawlessness in 1864, when "Bushwhackers" -- small bands of unruly soldiers from both sides -- looted small towns and robbed local farmers of produce and livestock. (Lowell 1987) When President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Procla

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