Cloning/ Cloning term paper 17222

Cloning term papers
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Should we clone humans?

Cloning humans has become a possibility that seems easier in today's society than it was

twenty years ago. It is a method that involves the production of a group of identical cells or

organisms that all derive from a single individual (Grolier 220). It is not known when or how

cloning humans really became a possibility, but it is known that there are two possible ways that

we can clone humans. The first way involves splitting an embryo into several halves and creating

many new individuals from that embryo. The second method of cloning a human involves taking

cells from an already existing human being and cloning them, in turn creating other individuals

that are identical to that particular person. These are two methods we should think about and

ask ourselves if we should clones humans. The overall idea of cloning humans is one that we

should accept as a possible reality for the future.

Although we cannot clone a human yet, this experiment occurred almost two years ago.

Evidence from these experiments got strange reactions from the public. Shannon Brownlee

claims, "The Vatican condemned the technology of this experiment as being perverse; one

German magazine called the research unscupulous" (24). This experiment opend the possibilities

of cloning to society and, even though it was unseccessful, it led people to ask themselves what

they would do if cloning were to happen. Common answers to the puzzling questions about

humans and cloning are still trying to be answered today, and scientists and the public are eager

to learn all they can about cloning. Many sources state that cloning is just simply an extension of

in vitro fertalization. In fact, it is ,and many couples that can not have babies should take this into

mind.

Cloning embryos is different from the genetic process of in vitro fertilization, but still

holds many similarities with it. For example, the process of in vitro fertilization is pretty

straightfoward. It involves taking an egg from the woman and taking sperm from the man. The

embryo is then formed and implanted into the woman's uterus. The embryo develops normally

and is born with unpredictable characteristics of both the man and the woman. The offspring

ends up as unique individual and excluding the special case of twins, has no other human bein

exactly like it. It uses one embryo that is from the beginning a distinct individual and creates only

one human that is basically completely original. Cloning also goes through this same process, but

it is unlike in vitro fertilization in that it takes the same type embryo and destroys its originality

through duplication. Research on in vitro fertilization helps to improve its techniques and also

aids scientists in their search for better ways to clone humans. Barbara Ehrenreich makes a

statement that seems to be quite sarcastic in its context, but it describes the way the society's

attitude if cloning were to happen, she state, "Why not make a few backup copies of the

embryo and keep a few in the freezer in case Junior needs a new kidney or cornea" (86). I think

that if this happens a type of black market for embryo could easily someday develop, who

knows. Some people see this on the negative side when it could actually help our society.

On the positive side of this issue, however, embryonic cloning could be a valuable tool for

the studying of human development, genetically modifying embryos, and investigating new

transplant technologies (Hamilton 42). Using cloning to produce offspring for the sake of their

organs is an issue that we must also face and question whether or not it is morally right. No one

will say that it is okay to kill a human being for the sake of their organs, but many have no

objection to cloning thousands of individuals that look alike. Technology seems to take away many

of the morals that we have worked so hard to install in society. Most people only seem to want to

cater to their own needs and do not bother to consider the consequences that society and the

clone may have to face. The issue of in vitro fertilization among embryos only leads the public to

fear what may happen once cloning takes over, if it does.

With the issue of parents' involvement in cloning, Barbara Ehrenreich of Time, writes,

"Any normal species would be delighted at the prospect of cloning. No more nasty surprises

like sickle cell or Down syndrome-just batch after batch of high-grade and, genetically

speaking, immortal offspring!" She also believes that "any culture that encourages in vitro

fertilization has no right to complain about the market of embryos". A society that accepts a

woman having an embryo implanted in her womb should be able to deal with it if those embryos

are genetically identical. Many people believe that genetic material is more valuable than life

itself. The issue of what parents and the clones should do and feel comes up frequently when we

ask our questions about the ethics of cloning. With the possibility of cloning their children,

parents for example, can build a family of clones by storing siblings identical to their child in a

freezer and thaw them out later when they decide to have another child. Although these children

would be of different ages, they would look identical to one another. Shannon Brownlee claims,

"A bizarre possibility to consider is that a woman conceived from a split embryo could give birth

to her own twin" (24). This possibility only begins the crazy affects that cloning can have on

society. What would one think if they were walking down the street and they saw a mother and

her children walking side by side and they were identical looking just of different ages. Many

ethicists maintain that parents have the right to do what they want to with their embryos, but

others think that they should not take away any child's chance at individuality. Just think, how

would you explain the concept of cloning to your children, and what would their views about

society be?

One of the many questions brought up was regarding whether or not cloning should

be an option for parents that are considering having children. Many problems often occur with

couples involving the issue of infertility. "Some people believe that cloning should aim its main

focus to helping infertile couples-and they will likely conclude that there is nothing wrong with it.

The scarcely hidden assumption that anything that helps overcome infertility is morally

appropriate." (McCormick 148). With in vitro fertilization so popular in today's society among

infertile couples, who is to say that in the future, cloning won't take over? Cloning is noted to be

better for treating infertility in the sense that it can eliminate health problems with the child from

the beginning. This proves to be beneficial in the way that a couple is more than likely

guaranteed a healthy child. Cloning does not, however, always prove to be beneficial. For

example, in the case where a certain disease is on the rise and one of say three clones get it.

The immune system of the other two clones is identical which proves that they have no guard

against diseases.

Cloning from an already existing adult is a second method that we must

consider when discussing the cloning of humans. This type of cloning would no doubt be a very

controversial issue any way that it is looked at, but it is necessary to understand the two ways

that it could be done if we were to clone humans. Unlike the process of cloning embryos,

cloning from already existing humans allows one to know exactly what their clone will look like

ahead of time. Before the clone is actually produced, the parents or the individual's clone will

know exactly what to expect in their offspring as far as looks go. Personality and other factors

cannot be certain, but it is stated that if the clone is observed carefully and compared with its

other clones, many similarities will automatically arise. Cloning among adults is less obtainable

than embryonic cloning, but it seems to cause just as much controversy.

Since embryonic cloning has not been successful yet, no real experiments like the one

performed at George Washington University have been done yet. We do know, however, know

that cloning from an already existing human may effectively work in the near future.

Many parents have great concern in regards to having a child that has been cloned.

However, there are many excited parents looking forward to this breakthrough in technology.

By looking at the many different reasons for cloning a child, one can better understand why it

may seem appealing to parents. Cloning from an already existing human will provide the

opportunity for parents to pick their "ideal" child. They will be able to pick out every aspect of

their child and make sure that it is perfect before they decide to have it. For example, they can

choose their hair and eye color and build almost exactly by looking at the individual they were

cloned from (Voelker 331).

Whether or not cloning happens with embryos or adults, various groups in society may

react very differently to it. For example, there are many religious groups that feel cloning should

not be considered for any reasons whatsoever. Richard McCormick for Christian Century ,

believes that "human cloning is an extremely social matter, not a question of mere personal

privacy. I see three dimensions to the moral question: the wholeness of life, the individuality of

life, and the respect for life" (148). In his article based on religion and cloning, he explains that

all creatures come from God with their own certain uniqueness about them. He points out the

fact that the pre-embryo is human and is living even in it's first stages of development. This

somehow parallels to the issue of abortion and whether or not it is morally right. Religion is the

root of many peoples' values and their beliefs about things like cloning and abortion lie behind

these. Richard McCormick basically summarizes the statement that society is already pretty

messed up and with the idea of cloning in perspective, we need to beware as the future

approaches.

No matter what we say or do, research for cloning will steadily continue and even more

moral and ethical issues will arise. Who knows which of the two kinds of cloning will become

the most popular in the future, but right now the main stand we need to take is whether or not it

can be done and should be done. Who knows if human cloning done in research labs presently

will go beyond the laboratory and affect individuals lives. What we do know however, is that

cloning seems to very appealing in some aspects and very frightening in others.

Word Count: 1816

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