The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Fredrich Engles describes a theory of an economic system of a utopian society. Marx's view was that the system could work through the abolition of the bourgeois class. The book states many criteria for the system to work, including an equal obligation of all to work, setting up a national bank, abolishing inheritance rights, free education for all children, child labor laws. . One major focus of the theory is the demolition of state and private ownership, where land and economic goods are distributed equally.
Russia was a prime target for a Marxist Revolution in the early 20th century because for years, most of the population lived in severe social and economic conditions under repressive Tsars. This feeling was culminated by Russia's unsuccessful and poorly organized involvement in World War I and the humiliating loss of the Russo-Japan war. As the industrial revolution emerged, many farmers flocked to the cities seeking but not finding better conditions. Those that remained on the farms wanted the fertile land that was owned by the nobility. City workers wanted a voice in the government and better living conditions. The harsh conditions at the time left the exploited working class open to radical ideals such as those outlined in the Communist Manifesto.
3. Explain the relationship between World War I and the Communist Revolution in Russia.
Russia's involvement in World War I is noted as one of the causes of the Communist Revolution. During World War I, Russian armies were badly defeated; many Russian soldiers were killed or captured. Soldiers were sent into battle without proper war materials because industry was in such a poor state during the war prices began to rise and people began to starve.
Nicholas II took felt it was his obligation to take control of the military, because Russia was losing the war so badly, much of the blame fell on him. When he went to the front lines, he was relying on his wife, Alexandra, to keep him informed situations. Alexandra was not well liked by the Russian people because she was German, and to make matters worse she began a friendship with Rasputin, a peasant priest. Rumors began to fly that Alexandra and Rasputin were having an affair. Rasputin was murdered and the Tsar was forced to abdicate and a Provisional Government took over. The Tsar and his family were eventually exiled and killed.
Since the Provisional Government did not view itself as a permanent structure, it did not want to make any major decisions such as ending the war with Germany, as the Russian people wanted. These weaknesses led to the take over by Lenin and the Bolsheviks