Criminology/Gang Violence term paper 42497

Criminology term papers
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Introduction

Gang involvement is as old as civilization. Gang violence is an act of belligerence perpetrated by a bunch of hooligans that are well organized, founded and with familiar characteristics amongst themselves. Historically, the terminology was employed to refer to a cluster of workers, fastidiously in England. The terminology gang transmits harmful overtones within a bunch of hoodlums work contrary to the collective norms of a given society. In India for instance, the terminology stretch as back as 1200 AD and it is inferred to a huddle of outlaws that rambled the country prowling towns in their way. The hoodlums had their own pictograms, hand marks, formal procedures as well as the colloquial speech. In the US, pirates phenomenon was a ubiquitous theory in 1800, this is an epoch when James and Billy and many more hoodlums prowled the US ruthlessly. In the wee days of the 20th century, gangs were characterized by poor income backgrounds and tribal shanties. (Garland, D. 2002; 12-19). This was evident in the US when the immigrant societies and ghetto backdrops witnessed their teenagers constructing hoodlums. Owing to the civil contention and world-weariness of the 60s, most street hoodlums evolved in large built-up metropolis like Los Angeles and New York. Some of the acronyms that were adopted during this epoch include the Savage Skulls as well as the Savage Nomads. A few decades later, state gang alliances were formed and exploded into drug conduits that went full fledge in the 90s labeling the US as the largest clientele to the illicit networks. Criminal activities in the US were on a rampage during this period. Based on sponsored reviews hoodlum activities were hypnotized prompting the urgency for combating the vice. Facts and figures illustrated that by 2000 the gang population was at one million. (Savelsberg, Joachim J., Lara L. Cleveland, Ryan D. King 2004; 200-05)

Theories

Criminology is a domain of information that regards crime as an observable fact inherent within a society. In response to the societal configuration viewpoint, criminality is less a personal persuade in as much as merchandise of social factors. Theorists like Durkheim, conceive criminal attributes as part of society owing to the school of thought that communal compromise is intricate to realize. Social ineptitude puts the concept on a functional whole that determines criminality and also postulates that decree is an icon of camaraderie. Deviants get rooted in criminal activities courtesy to the inabilities to achieve guiding replicas into their very existence. Walker, S. (1992, 56-63). Investigators have statistics that substantiate criminal activities in fastidious backdrops as in changeover regions. Basing on the strain theory, most gangs are constituted in bid to revolt against stringent social backdrops; hence social reception is highlighted as the central dynamism about criminality. On the extreme end the cultural deviance presumptions construct the viewpoint that conflicts of mores are evident in the event when the immigrant�s influx marks the genesis of criminal activities. The inadequacies in gaining modest values as a surrogate to previous values that are not accepted in the modern society offers reasons to have conflicting notions about laws within the communal context as enshrined within the social justice. When social reception is not accorded the gangs are constituted to instill their mores which are termed criminal. Walker, S. (1992, 56-63).

Within the framework of the social configuration theories, �transmission belts� like parents are anticipated to offer mores and objectives fastidious to the communal class they get affiliated recognized with. According to the traditions deviance presumption citizens that emerge from poor backdrops enhance disconnect value structures. Hence the notion is a reliable theme with structural theorists that presume crime as subordinate rank-experience.

Criminal Justice as a deterrent measure

This is a system of legislation employed by governments and individuals to sanction violators of law, in order to deter or control crime within a country. The government should employ institutions like the police force, courts and correctional systems, which pass sentences and administer punishments to those found guilty of offences. The definition of justice as relates to the correctional system is one that punishes those found guilty of offence. The punishments may range from probation, imprisonment, correction programs; home confinement and so on Savelsberg, Joachim J., Lara L. Cleveland, Ryan D. King 2004; 200-05) The national institute of justice (NIJ) proposes reexamination of the administering punishments from custodial to non custodial methods correctional justice which involve financial penalties such as fines, forfeiture, restitution (Savelsberg, Joachim J., Lara L. Cleveland, Ryan D. King 2004; 200-05)

In some countries, judiciary as a correctional measure may administer corporal punishment and death penalty. Although some countries did away with these kinds of punishment and particularly death penalties some countries still retain it. In the United States this is form of punishment is administered in severe offences such as attempted murder or any murder that is premeditated, treason and espionage (Savelsberg, Joachim J., Lara L. Cleveland, Ryan D. King June 2004; 200-05) or military law. Correctional aspect of criminal justice has evolved in different phases throughout history. Other aspects of law enforcement and courts have similarly undergone evolution. In the early years of civilization when resources to build and maintain correctional facilities were scarce and when knowledge on the issue was available, correction justice primarily took the form of exile and execution. Execution is synonymous capital punishment or death penalty. Exile on the other hand refers to being chased away from home country as being forbidden to return home. Threats of death or even imprisonment were usually the consequences of returning home when one was exiled. (Walker, S. 1992, 56-63). In addition, other forms of punishments such as shame punishments and dismemberment was administered. Shame punishment was a conscious effort meant to disgrace, dishonor and embarrass a perpetrator publicly in order to deter others from repeating a similar offence. Medieval punishments also included dismemberment. This is the act of cutting a persons organ, tearing, or removing limbs of a person by chaining him to moving parts, say, vehicles or horses and moving them to opposite direction until a limb or organ is removed. This punishment was cruel and often fatal. It strongly deterred people from violating laws. (Garland, D. 2002; 12-19)

In the modern era correction justice has evolved to a more humane approach. This is because correctional justice as the name suggests is supposed to correct bad or unacceptable behavior into the socially acceptable behavior and make the perpetrator become a better person. Prisons are used to retain suspects of crime before and during trial and hold prisoners after court find them guilty of crime. Unlike the medieval times where prisons were dungeons where criminals were put without much thought of the poor living conditions, these days, prisons are habitable. This can be credited to the Quaker movement, which advocated for prisons to be reform facilitates. Savelsberg, Joachim J., Lara L. Cleveland, Ryan D. King (June 2004; 200-05).

Justice means different things to different people but the best way to define correctional justice and apply it is to ensure that whatever punishment is administered to people achieves the intended purpose of reforming offenders and at the same time defers others, like the offender, from repeating the same offence. The punishment should be severe enough for the offender to feel remorse and for the victim to feel that fairness and justice prevailed. The justice system should also improve the general public attitudes and trust in the legislature arm of government. People should feel secure in their own country and that the law protects them. Justice is meant to serve three purposes. That is deterrence, retribution prevention and rehabilitation of criminal offenders. (Garland, D. 2002; 12-19)

Preclusive variables and hindrance

Into the bargain of precluding teenagers from joining gangs, it is imperative to curtail association time frame for youth that belong to a gang and also offer required services as soon as they are out of the hoodlum; this include drug healing, job opportunities as well as educational prospects. Amplifying protective variables play an imperative function in curtailing teenage hoodlum participation. Preclusive factors are some of the probable synergies that mitigate the effect of risk variables and minimize the propensity of anomalous traits. (Garland, D. 2002; 12-19)

Basing on the proof concerning hoodlum preclusion, the societal solutions to gang belligerence in myriad states assist in the enhancement of preclusive factors amongst the adolescent through the construction of prospective affiliations and trends of interaction with mentors and pro-social peers that constitute optimistic social backdrops by means of community, family and service structures that enhances social and monetary framework that champion for affirmative teenage progression. Walker, S. (1992, 56-63).

Society Resolutions to Gang Sadism (SRGS)

The inventiveness focuses about integrating young adults in profit-oriented illegal bustle and aggression. Owing to myriad partners from various departments including; health, child and social services, the scheme puts together a community-wide action plan and a network that assist in finding a solution to the gang aggression anomalies in most states. These encompass scheduling a well documented profiling of threats and preclusive variables associated with hoodlum participation. Formation of electronic databases could also be examined as a prominent stratagem that updates reserves, instruments and information that could be employed to preclude young adults from being drawn into drug activities. Anthony, A. (1993, 8-100).

Discussion

To come up with concrete preclusive efforts in the determent of criminal activities, the comprehension of the underlying reasons that trigger young persons to constitute themselves into gangs is imperative. Latest reviews highlight the necessity to address fastidious threat factors that lead young adults to aggression and criminal cartels. According to the statistics carried out in Los Angels, gangs adopted firearms hence increasing homicide to 95% in the mid nineties. Facts and figures have shown that Los Angeles recorded the largest number of street gang aggression in the US with 82% being interracial assassins. Members of the community living with belligerent hoodlums are at enhanced threats of injury and death from the same gang. Report shows that 2/3 of all child and young adult slaughter victims in Los Angeles are culprit�s hoodlum aggression. To be able to center the attention in bid to deterrence efforts, threat variables affiliated with the youth hoodlum involvement is imperative in constructing the attention. In summary form it is evident that the more hazardous aspects that a teenage experiences, the more probable they are likely to be initiated into hoodlum activities. Research findings have shown that the occurrence of threat variables in myriad segments accelerates the likelihood of gang participation. (Garland, D. 2002; 12-19) Enhanced gang activities and criminality among the native societies is blamed on an augmented adolescence population, poor housing, lack of jobs, poor education backgrounds, paucity parental knowledge, thrashing away of the mores, lingo and individuality as well as the sense of segregation. The hoodlum�s unity, mores and their living standards are imperatives factors to consider. Basing on a Montreal review that was carried out on 800 boys, gang affiliates exhibit high rates of delinquent characters and substance abuse as compared to non-gang affiliates. The impact of the gang augments to the social and societal threat variables that are evident before one is initiated in a gang. Michael G. Maxfield, Earl R. Bobbie (2007, 102-110).

References:

Garland, D. "Of Crimes and Criminals", in Maguire, Mike, Rod Morgan, Robert, Reindeer:The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 3rd edition. Oxford University Press. 2002; Pg 12-19.

Savelsberg, Joachim J., Lara L. Cleveland, Ryan D. King "Institutional Environments and Scholarly Work: American Criminology, 1951-1993". Social Forces 82(4); 2004, pg 200-205

Walker, S. "Origins of the Contemporary Criminal Justice Paradigm: The American bar Foundation Survey, 1953-1969". Justice Quarterly 9(1). 1992, Pg 56-63

Michael G. Maxfield, Earl R. Bobbie. Research methods for criminal justice and criminology. London, Thomson Publisher; 2007, Pg 102-110

Anthony, A. (1993). Police use of force; official Reports, Citizen. Complaints, and legal consequences, Washington, D.C. 2 (1): 1993, p 8-100.

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