1. Louis XIV lived up to the title "Le Grand Monarch" by building the great

place of Versailles and by bring the arts back to France. He surrounded himself

with luxury and had only the finest things money could buy. Yet he probably still

hurt his country more than he helped it and I don't think he was worthy of the

title "Le Grand Monarch".

2. Versailles what the palace that was ordered to be built by Louis XIV.

Versailles was the most luxurious palace of its time. The palace itself stretched

an astonishing 500 yards. Versailles was built on swampy land about 11 miles

southwest of Paris. Life at the palace was also handled in a royal matter, Louis

spent tons of money to surround himself with luxury. Every meal was feast, he

had nearly 500 cooks and waiters to satisfy his tastes. Every morning the chief

valet had the job of waking Louis at 7:30, and as soon as he woke there where

one hundred of the courts finest nobles waiting and hoping to in some way help

the king dress. Versailles also had problems, for example since it was huge the

food was often cold by the time it got from one end of the palace to the other,

there was also a water shortage. Versailles became a center of the arts during

Louis's reign as king, he made opera and ballet more popular. Some researchers

have estimated that Louis spent up to 60% of France's income of that year, on

the building and up keeping of Versailles.

3. Louis XIV died unhappy because he had come to the realization that he

had done more bad to France that good. His wars had ruined the glory of

France. Although he had the great palace of Versailles built he still regretted the

fact that his people had suffered more than rejoiced during his reign as king.

News of his death brought joy throughout the countryside.

4. One of the ways which Russia differed from the rest of Europe is that was

still on a system of boyars and serfs. Serfdom lasted much longer in Russia that

in western Europe, it continued in Russia into the mid-1800's, many years after

the rest of Europe had ended it. Also Russia had been under Mongol rule and

was cut off the from the ages of Renaissance and Exploration. Geographical

barriers also isolated Russia. Russia only had one seaport, Archangel, and it was

stopped by ice much of the year. Religion was also another dividing factor

between Russia and the rest of Europe, Russians where the Eastern Orthodox

branch of Christianity, while Western Europeans were mostly Catholics or

Protestants, Russians viewed them as heretics and stayed away from them.

5. Peter knew how to go about the westernization of Russia because he had

visited Western Europe first hand. He worked as a shipsmen in his stay in

Western Europe. He was accompanied by 200 servants and 55 boyars, making

his visit no real secret. His goal was to learn about European customs and

industrial techniques which would be vital in bettering his own Russia. Although

it was obvious of what Peter was doing he still insisted on keeping his identity

secret he wore plain clothes and tried to act as a commoner. He worked on

ships for four months. People where soon perfectly aware of his identity, yet if a

worker addressed him as "your majesty" or "sire" Peter would not respond.

Peter also made visits to Austria and England before returning home.

6. Peter built St. Petersburg for many reasons. He wanted to promote

growth and education, but mostly Peter wanted a easier way to travel west and

vice versa. The city was built on a swamp which had to be won in war with

Sweden. Building a city on a swamp was no easy task, every summer the army

would force thousands of serfs to leave there families and jobs to go work at St.

Petersburg. It is estimated that 25,000 to 100,000 serfs died from the terrible

working conditions and diseases of St. Petersburg. The building of St. Petersburg

showed just how much power the rulers of absolute monarch had anything they

said had to be done, must be done. Peter wanted a city and thousands of men

died to build his city yet none of these men had a choose in the matter. This

showed the absolute power of rulers of these monarchs.

7. Peter made many reforms on Russia, he brought the Russian Orthodox

church under state control. He also abolished the office of patriarch, which is the

head of church, he then set up a group called the Holy Synod to run the church,

which was under his direction. He also made a great effort to modernize his

army, he hired European officers who drilled Peter's soldiers using European

tactics and weapons, being a soldier was now a lifetime job. Because of the

number of the growing army Peter also had to impose heavy taxes to pay for it.

Peter also reduced the power of the great landowners. He recruited able men of

low-ranking families and then promoted them to positions of authority and

rewarded them with grants of land.

8. In the English monarchy the king is not in absolute power, his decisions

are still limited because of the English parliament. In France the king has

absolute power he can make all he decisions and call with out anyone to

question him or tell him he cant do it. Parliament is like the congress we use in

America the king made the calls but the parliament ha to approve of them first.

The system which the English use is the basis of our system we use in America

today, which consists of a president and congress much like the king and

parliament that they use.

9. The English Civil War was between those loyal to King Charles, known as

Royalists or Cavaliers, and those who where Puritan supporters of Parliament,

who where mockingly called Roundheads due to there short hair cut which went

over there ears. The Royalist were led by King Charles himself, while the

Roundheads were led by Oliver Cromwell, who founded the New Model Army

which proved to be too much for the Royalists. The war lasted from 1642 to

1649, and was started all because Parliament passed laws to limit royal power.

Charles who was furious about the new laws attempted to arrest Parliament's

leaders in January of 1642, but the escaped. Very furious as well a mob of

Londoners raged outside the palace, Charles then fled London to the north of

England and started up a army where people were loyal to him.

10. Louis XIV ran his nation the way he wanted to see himself. He tried to

bring glory to his country, when in fact he hurt his country more than he helped

it. He took his country into many wars which many of them he lost. He also built

the palace at Versailles which showed his need to be surrounded with luxury,

this alone nearly drained Frances's economy, just so he could look good as king.

Peter I of Russia was a totally different man than Henry, he wanted to help his

country to modernize and grow, and he went about doing this the right way. He

made personal sacrifices to assure the growth of his country. He went and

worked as a shipsmen just to learn how to make his country better, and when it

came down to the end he died trying to save another man's life. I can't imagine

Henry who did nothing but drain his country's economy to pleasure himself,

jumping in freezing cold water to save another person's life. I definitely believe

Peter deserves to be give the title "great" much more than Henry. They were

called divine right because of there mentality that they were God's servants on

earth and could answer only to God. I don't believe that a monarchy could work

at all in today's world. In our society and world today we have to many cultures

and needs which can't be revolved around just what a king wants. With our

rebellious nature of these days a monarchy would not only never work it would

never last it would be overran in a matter of no time at all. It just would be

unthinkable to have ruler who made every call with no say from the people,

there is no way it could work in our world today.

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