Outline on the World War Era in Holland

I. World War I

A. Allies then put them under strict quotas - could only receive pre-war imports and exports.

1. Netherlands Trust set up to monopolize and administer the rigid quota of imports allowed into Holland through Allied Blockade.

2. Allies even attempted to prevent Dutch sales to Germany.

B. Were not occupied in WWI

1. This was mainly because the Germans wanted use of Rotterdam Port.

2. Was a neutral country in WWI

II. World War II 's effects on the citizens

A. August 1939 - Food Rationing begins.

B. Were brought into WW2 on May 10th, 1940.

C. Crowded cities received bad air attack in WW2 by the Germans, and the Netherlands were forced to surrender.

D. German Occupation.

1. New Regulations

a. August 1944 - Anyone in the streets after dark would be shot.

b. August 1944 - Germans said no more electricity to Dutch civilians.

III. The Holocaust in the Netherlands

A. October 22, 1941, non-Jews could no longer do household work in Jewish homes.

1. Alleged moral and sexual risks for Aryans

B. March 1942, Jews were prohibited to have sexual with non-Jews.

1. Interracial marriages forbidden.

2. Also, black people restricted from "Aryans"

C. Jews were restricted from particular jobs.

1. Jews could not do charity work

2. Jews could only work in companies run by Jews and for Jews.

3. Autumn, 1941, unemployed Jews placed into forced labor camps.

D. 1942, Jews taken from labor camps to Westerbork.

E. Beginning of 1942, Germans concentrated Jews into Amsterdam.

1. Moving was prohibited except to Amsterdam.

F. In March 1942

1. Jews could no longer use private motor vehicles.

2. Jews couldn't go to non-Jewish hairdressers, etc.

3. Jews couldn't use public telephones.

4. Private Jewish subscribers had their telephones disconnected.

G. June 14,1942, new regulations:

1. No more canoeing, rowing, swimming, fishing, bicycles.

H. June 30, 1942, New regulations:

1. 8pm-6am must not go out

2. Shopping between 3-5pm permitted.

3. No public transport

I. Early May 1942, Jews required to wear yellow stars on clothes in public with Jood written on them.

J. May 21, warning, any infringement of new regulations had VERY serious consequences.

K. June 26, 1942, Jewish men and women between 16 and 40 would be put to work in Germany.

1. It had been decided that 1000 Dutch Jews a week would be transported to concentration camps.

a. First transport takes place on July15, 1942, continues nonstop until September 17, 1944

b. Took place on Tuesday mornings

c. Most Jews went to Auschwitz, 34, 000 to Sobidor (Poland), several thousand to Bergen-Belsen (Germany) and to Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia)

d. Jews were collected from their homes in the middle of the night, unexpectedly.

L. November 1942, more than 2000 Jews were deported from Amsterdam.

M. Only 25% of all Dutch Jews survived the war.

1. 3000 Dutch Jews escaped through neutral countries.

2. 107,000 Jews were transported in all.

IV. Post War Problems and Recuperation

A. By May 1945, when the war was over, 270,000 Netherlanders had been killed or starved to death.

B. Almost half of the nation's factories and shipping and most of its railroads were destroyed.

C. The harbors at Amsterdam and Rotterdam were crippled.

D. A seventh of the land was flooded as a result of war damage to the dikes.

E. Several hundred thousand Netherlanders left their country.

1. Moved to Australia, Canada, or the United States.

F. In 1945, became a charter member of the United Nations.

G. In 1947 joined the European nations working together for recovery under the Marshall Plan of the United States.

1. Received 1 billion in Marshall Plan aid.

H. Netherlands then joined other programs to Promote international unity

1. Benelux

2. The Council of Europe

3. The European Coal and Steel Community

4. The European Common Market

5. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

I. Post WWII (1955), industrial production actually increases to 60 per cent greater than pre-World War II level. Farm output was almost 20 per cent greater.

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