Ellis Island has a long history, was needed, and was the "Gateway to America" from 1892 until it closed in 1954, when it began its slow decay.
The island was called Gull Island by the Indians and Oyster Island by the Dutch. Later the English erected a gibbet or gallows on the island for hanging criminals and so the island became known as Gibbet Island. The Indians sold it to the Dutch East India Company for trinkets. The company later sold it to Mynheer Paauw who also bought land along the New Jersey coastline. Samuel Ellis, a colonial merchant bought the island and it became at last Ellis Island. After the Revolution, the island was sold to New York State and in 1811, Fort Gibson was built on it in preparation for the War of 1812. No fighting took place at Fort Gibson it was mainly a munitions storage fort.
When immigrants began, pouring into New York City, New York State processed them at an old fort known as Castle Clinton on the Battery at the tip of Manhattan. When that facility became too small for the large number of immigrants arriving in the country, they chose Ellis Island as the new immigration center. After erecting new wooden buildings, it opened in 1892 but those buildings burned in 1897. New buildings were erected in 1900 and it reopened. Eventually the control of immigration was turned over to the Federal government.
Ellis Island was the principal federal immigration station the Gateway to America in the United States from 1892 to 1954. More than 12 million immigrants were processed here. Over time, the immigration station spread over 3 connected islands with numerous structures including a hospital and contagious disease wards. It is estimated that over 40 percent of all citizens can trace their ancestry to those who came through Ellis Island. In its early years, when the greatest number of immigrants entered the country, Ellis Island mirrored the nation's generous attitude and open door policy. After passage of immigration laws in the 1920s, it was used more for "assembly, detainment, and deporting aliens," and symbolized a closing door. Immigrants were required to pass a series of medical and legal inspections before they could enter America. The actual experience of going through inspection or detainment on Ellis Island was often nerve wracking. Those who did not pass these inspections were returned to their country of origin on the boats that brought them here. Even though only 2 percent of those coming to America were turned away at Ellis Island, that translated to over 250,000 people whose hopes and dreams turned to tears.
It was the Gateway to America , it was needed, and it was built.