White Collar Crimes Term Paper

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"White collar" crime refers to that category of crime that tends to be committed by professionals. Securities Fraud, Insider Trading, Bank Fraud, Tax Fraud, and Money Laundering are all examples of white-collar crime.

COMMON TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME

1.Bank Fraud:

To engage in an act or pattern of activity where the purpose is to

defraud a bank of funds.

2.Blackmail:

A demand for money or other consideration under threat to do bodily

harm, to injure property, to accuse of a crime, or to expose secrets.

3.Bribery:

When money, goods, services, information or anything else of value is

offered with intent to influence the actions, opinions, or decisions of the

taker. You may be charged with bribery whether you offer the bribe or

accept it.

4.Cellular Phone Fraud:

The unauthorized use, tampering, or manipulation of a cellular phone or

service. This can be accomplished by either use of a stolen phone, or

where an actor signs up for service under false identification or where

the actor clones a valid electronic serial number (ESN) by using an ESN

reader and reprograms another cellular phone with a valid ESN

number.

5.Computer fraud:

Where computer hackers steal information sources contained on

computers such as: bank information, credit cards, and proprietary

information.

6.Counterfeiting:

Occurs when someone copies or imitates an item without having been

authorized to do so and passes the copy off for the genuine or original

item. Counterfeiting is most often associated with money however can

also be associated with designer clothing, handbags and watches.

7.Credit Card Fraud:

The unauthorized use of a credit card to obtain goods of value.

8.Currency Schemes:

The practice of speculating on the future value of currencies.

9.Embezz1ement:

When a person who has been entrusted with money or property

appropriates it for his or her own use and benefit.

10.Environmental Schemes:

The overbilling and fraudulent practices exercised by corporations

which purport to clean up the environment.

11.Extortion:

Occurs when one person illegally obtains property from another by

actual or threatened force, fear, or violence, or under cover of official

right.

12.Forgery:

When a person passes a false or worthless instrument such as a check or

counterfeit security with the intent to defraud or injure the recipient.

2. For some, WHITE COLLAR CRIME is not viewed as a "crime" at all, because of its non-violent nature. Violent crime has an immediate and observable impact on its victim which raises the ire of the public, whereas WHITE COLLAR CRIME frequently goes undetected or is

viewed as a bending of the rules. Yet WHITE COLLAR CRIME can create the greater havoc. The victim of an assault will recover, however, the impact of a fraud can last a lifetime. This is especially true when the elderly are victimized, as they have little or no hope of re-establishing

themselves in financial terms.

3. Contrary to the popular belief, White Collar criminals are thieves and the methods used to conceal their offenses are both artful and ingenious. Concealment of the crime is always an objective of the offender, and it becomes an element of the crime itself. Because it is an artful

form of deceit which is skilfully disguised , the investigation itself is often long and laborious as far as proving criminal intent is concerned. The offence itself may be disguised in a maze of legitimate transactions, which are quite proper if viewed in isolation, however, the cumulative

effect is the commission of a criminal offence. From the standpoint of the criminal, the ideal white collar crime is one that will never be recognized or detected as a criminal act.

4. The distinguishing characteristic of such investigations is the requirement for the investigator to establish criminal intent and the underlying motives of the subject, by reassembling the pieces

of the jigsaw puzzle to reveal the illegitimacy of the transaction, versus an oversight or a careless act.

5. On this basis, it has long been established that the nature of white collar crime demands specialized training and expertise in the area of business, commerce and law, on the part of those who are responsible for investigating and prosecuting white collar crime and the same holds true today. The sophisticated nature of the crime, the professionals involved, and the fact

that the offenders can usually afford the best of defense lawyers demands a professional investigations as well as prosecutorial expertise, if we are to be successful in the fight against white collar crime.

Word Count: 739

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