Decision-Making & Forces Of Influence

The Free essays given on our site were donated by anonymous users and should not be viewed as samples of our custom writing service. You are welcome to use them to inspire yourself for writing your own term paper. If you need a custom term paper related to the subject of Management or Decision-Making & Forces Of Influence , you can hire a professional writer here in just a few clicks.
Critical Thinking Styles and Forces of Influence Making decisions is a major portion of the manager's responsibilities. It is an aspect that cannot be taken lightly nor can it be done in a hasty manner. Hasty, careless decisions can have devastating results on the manager's department or even for the entire company. Decisions that are made with deliberation using different kinds of processes, however, can lead the department or company to better and/or more profitable operations. When decisions are indeed made in this manner, the manager should feel confident that he or she has made an appropriate decision and is the best option given the information available at the time. This does not mean to say that the manager will always make the correct decision; lack of information or situational changes can lead to faulty analysis. However, if the manager uses critical thinking and proven successful decision-making strategies, he or she can and should be confident in whatever action they have decided is appropriate. Their own confidence level will, in fact, affect the outcome of their action. Forces of Influence “Managers can be called “information workers”; a manager is a craftsperson whose raw material is information (McCall & Kaplan 16).” Managers spend the majority of their time absorbing information and trying to process all the information in order to reach a decision of some sort or another. With in the realm of the information system a manager has many sources of where he or she may get this information, including, (a) systems and structures set up to keep them apprised on ongoing events, (b) the people around them who volunteer information and can be approached in search of trouble signs, clues, and missing pieces of puzzles, (c) the values of the organization, which point people in certain directions and define the critical variables in a complex array of possibilities, and (d) the manager’s own direct experience” (16). Management information systems aid a manager in developments for his or her area, which can be a strength or a weakness depending on the complexity of the system. One major problem with this whole process is the manager’s mind to go into what is called by many as an information overload. This can lead a manager to make faulty decisions based on information that is relevant to his or her judgement but fail at investigating the information for the opposing idea or situation. Managers rely heavily on the associates that surround him or her to gather and provide him or her with the information needed to complete a particular scenario. Although the associates may or may not have the proper information it is still a primary source and influence that a manger must use. Another way managers obtain information is by the guiding values and beliefs within their organization. This contributes to a manager’s separation of relevant information from irrelevant information from the perspective of the organization expectations. In addition to values and beliefs, the direct hands-on experience of a manger is a good source for obtaining necessary information. When a manager is encountered with a problem he or she has experienced before, they have firsthand information to work through the problem, as they deem necessary, because they already have the personal understanding and knowledge needed in working with the information. Forms of Thinking A big factor in what managers use to process the information he or she encounters relies heavily upon their cognitive process. Which according to McCall and Kaplan is the first step in making sense out of the information that is in front of them at the time. Managers process information through nine different processes including: making sense of the pieces; processing only so much; simplifying the information; utilizing an emotional component; defining a reality; digging for information; knowing what one is doing; knowing one’s self; and having an open mind. Another approach used to process information is the logical scientific approach. Which according to McAulay, Russell and Sims note that within the "logico-scientific mode" of decision making, it is important to discover the whole truth about the situation in order to make a logical and definitive decision. This type of decision cannot be based on one's opinion or even the opinion of the team; it must be based on hard evidence (32). To base decisions on personal perspectives or opinions without taking the time to analyze the situation can result in losses for the company. One other factor that is definitely an influence and a thinking pattern, which can effect a decision-making process, is the manager’s personality. Different personality types have been related to decision-making strategies used. Waldersee and Sheather addressed this issue in a study they did. They found that characteristics such as problem solving style, locus of control, the need for achievement, risk aversion and the degree of tolerance the manager has for ambiguity are all directly related to the strategy used to make decisions. Personality characteristics then drive the implementation of whatever decision has been made. For example, some studies have concluded that an internal locus of control is directly linked to innovations within the company as well as to a greater effectiveness in managing. Other studies have linked a willingness to accept risk and a high degree of tolerance for ambiguity to being effective in building the company but not in maintaining it at any given level. These researchers caution the reader that personality characteristics are not the only determining factors in decision making strategies; there are also the factors of experience and the inter-relationship of personality within the specific context of

Our inspirational collection of essays and research papers is available for free to our registered users

Related Essays on Management

Motivational Plan

To-A-Tee Screen-Printing is a local t-shirt manufacturing company located here, in Las Vegas, Nevada. This organization provides t-shirt, sweatshirt, and sports hat solutions primarily to ret...

Fordism And Scientific Management

FORDISM, SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT AND THE LESSONS FOR CONTEMPORARY ORGANISATIONS Fordism and Scientific Management are terms used to describe management that had application to practical situations wi...

Construction Management

Defining Organizational Structure Any organization functions successfully only if the members of the organization understand and perform their duties perfectly. For one to comprehend the role of a...

Performance Management

A local council has just received approval for 15 million from the National Lottery to build a new Arts, Media and Cultural Centre but it needs to find the matching capital Money for the project. I...

Human Resource Management

GROUP REPORT PART A CASE STUDY - CHIFLEY HOTEL By Joanne Lymperis 3090830 Jonathan Lopez 1108034 Word count: 1104 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. BROAD ORGANISATIONAL DETAILS 1.1. Ch...

Restaurant Management

Final Paper Notes My interview is with a manager of a restaurant, the restaurant can have as many as 75 customers, and staff of 14. The restaurant served your everyday American food. The p...