Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stalin was born on Dec. 21, 1876 in Gori, Georgia. Joseph Stalin’s original name was Iosef Vissaronovich Ozhungashvili, but he adopted his name to Joseph Stalin which means, “man of steel” (World Book 825). His fathers’ name was Vissarion Ivanovich Djugashvili. His father was a drunk and had a job being a shoemaker. Since Joseph’s father didn’t make much money Joseph’s mom, Ekaterina Gleladaz Djugaholi, who became a washerwoman to help support her family. The Stalin’s lived in a small shack, and Joseph was an only child. When Joseph was a young boy Stalin’s father left him. In 1888 Stalin was sent to a church school in Gori (World Book 825).

He spent 5 years there and was a brilliant student. Stalin received a scholarship at the religious seminary in Tbilisi. To a surprise, Stalin entered his school to study priesthood in the Georgian Orthodox Church in the year 1984 (World Book 825). In 1898, Stalin joined a secret Marxist revolutionary group (World Book 825). Stalin got expelled from his school for not appearing for an examination.

Stalin joined a Marxist movement and when it split in 1903, he went with more radical Bolsheviks. In 1904 he married but his wife died of tuberculosis after 3 years (World Book 825). He married again in 1919, but his 2nd wife killed herself, leaving Stalin with a son and daughter (World Book 825). The son became an alcoholic and his daughter defected to the United States

During Stalin’s underground career he was arrested at least 6 times and spent time as an exile in Siberia. He engaged in robbery, murder, labor agitation, and served as editor and writer for various newspapers, where he first used the name “Stalin” (The Red Tsar http.go2net.com). When the communist come to power in 1922 Stalin got a great position as a Secretary General of Communist Party (World Book 826). Before Lenin died he thought that Stalin was too vicious of a man. Lenin wrote a note to Leon Trotsky to succeed him.

Stalin had Lenin’s note suppressed and joined with two other members the Poliboro to defeat Trotsky. Then Stalin turned on the two who helped him defeat Trotsky and by 1928 had made himself the dictator of the Soviet Union (The Red Tsar http.go2net.com). With power in his hand Stalin began his “five-year plan.” The plan was to industrialize the country, a program that went hand-in-hand with a plan to bring all agriculture under state country.

This initial attempt to industrialize the country (as compared with later attempts) was generally successful, but collectivization was extremely unpopular and was resisted by the peasants. In response Stalin had millions of them killed, or allowed to starve to death. In 1934 Stalin began a massive slaughter of party members and military leaders, and in 1937 entered into the famous “nonagression pact” with Adolph Hitler (The Red Tsar http.go2net.com). Hitler later broke the pact and attacked the Soviet Union. 1953 Stalin died (World Book 828).

Bibliography

Bibliography

Caulkins, Janet. Joseph Stalin. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990

“Joseph Stalin, 1879-1953.” Lectures on Twentieth Century Europe, 1998.

Htttp://www.pagesz.net/~stevek/europe/stalin.html (12 May 2000).

Kolesnikova, Valentina. “Electric Library.” (1st edition), [CD-ROM]. Joseph Stalin:

All’s fair in party warfare.

“Stalin, Joseph.” Encyclopedia America, Vol. 25. 1990 ed.

“Stalin, Joseph.” The World Book Encyclopedia, Vol. 18. 1991 ed.

Word Count: 500

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