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WHY PEOPLE TRAVEL TO FAR AWAY PLACES Introduction People travel from one location to the other for various reasons. Some of the reasons are Recreation purposes, visiting family and friends, religious pilgrimages, trade, migration etc. In this report, the main focus will be traveling for Recreation purposes in line with the main subject of study, Tourism. Tourism Traveling predominantly for leisure or recreational is termed as tourism. People who travel to places outside their usual environment for leisure are called tourist. Tourism is a popular worldwide leisure activity. There exists three different form of tourism: o Domestic tourism o Inbound tourism o Outbound tourism. Domestic tourism involves residents of a given country traveling within that country. Outbound tourism involves residents of a given country traveling to another country and inbound tourism involves residents of another country traveling in a particular country. Travel requirement The following provisions have to be catered for before people can travel and experience tourism o Disposable Income o Infrastructure o Time o Clearance Documents Disposable income This refers to money to spend on essential and non essential while traveling and usually depend on the purpose of tavelling.with improved standard of living in many countries, many people are now able to spend more money on leisure activities. Infrastructure Infrastructure includes, but not limited to Transport facilities like Rail, road, Planes etc. Accommodations refer to Hotel, lodges, camps etc where tourist will be staying when they visit a particular place. Time This refers to time-off from responsibilities like family and work. The average number of vacation differs from one country to the other. Italy top the lists with the highest number vacation days per year with 42 days, followed by France with 37 days, other countries are: Germany-35, Brazil ' 34 days, united kingdom -28, Canada at 26 days etc. Documents This is especially important to outbound tourism where one have to be cleared by the immigration department of the country he/she is intending to travel. A valid passport and visa is required in most instances. Residents of selected countries are required to undergo medical test and have medical clearance form to prevent spread of communicable diseases like Tuberculosis History of Tourism In the 15th and 16th century, traveling was predominantly for the rich and wealthy. They traveled to distant parts to see great works of art, to see great building, to learn foreign languages, familiarize themselves with new culture. In England for example, Grand tour was the trend in 17th and 18th century for the sons of the rich and wealthy where they were sent on education tours to experience work of art and learn new culture. The top 10 most preferred tourist destination in the world today are: o France receiving an average of 70,000,000 tourists annually o Spain with an average 50,000,000 tourist annually o United States o Italy o United Kingdom o China o Mexico o Poland o Canada o Austria with an average of 20,000,000 tourists annually. People travel to far away countries, states, region etc with different motivations and reason. The reasons and motivations vary from one individual or group to the other. The motivation or reason ranges from having fun to looking for better health care. These inturn create different kind of tourism namely: o Adventure tourism o Agritourism o Atomic tourism o Bookstore tourism o Dark tourism o Disaster tourism o Drug tourism o Literary tourism o Medical tourism o Romance tourism o Sport tourism o War tourism o Water tourism o Wildlife tourism o Wine tourism Adventure Tourism This is where people travel to remote areas. This kind of tourism is growing rapidly and becoming very popular as tourist look for unusual vacations different from what they have been used to. Adventure tourism involves a lot of risk as it people travel to hostile, remote and inaccessible areas. Adventure tourism is characterized by the following: o Physical activities o Cultural exchanges o Engagement with nature. Examples of Adventure tourism are: o Rafting o Rock climbing o Mountaineering. o Trekking o Bungee jumping Rafting Rafting is a leisure sport which utilizes a raft to plot a course on a river. This is done on different degrees of rough water or on white water in order to bring excitement to those riding on the raft. Rafting has been a popular recreational activity since 1970. History Rafting has been used in the 17th century as a mean of transportation during hunting, shipping etc. The Grand Canyon was routed after the recognition of rafting in 1960s; this led to the establishment of whitewater rafting companies. The inclusion of Rafting in the 1970 Munich Olympic Games marked a major development in rafting. Raft were originally made from logs, reeds and planks fastened together, the modern raft is an inflatable boat consisting of durable, multi-layered vinyl fabrics, having independent air compartments. World major rafting destinations include, but not limited to: o Colorado river in the Grand Canyon o Montenegro o Brazil Risk associated with Rafting White water rafting is a dangerous form of adventure tourism. Their have been injuries and fatalities in both private and commercial Rafting. Basic safety precautions have to be met. The risks involved in whitewater rafting come form both improper behavior and environmental danger. Undercut rocks and dangerous high falls are some of the environmental risks. Improper behaviors include attempting to stand on a rocky riverbed on a strong current which can result to foot entrapment. Travelers should avoid rafting when intoxicated and where possible make use of an experienced guide. Benefits of Rafting Many Alpine countries benefit directly from rafting as it contributes to the economy of those countries either directly or indirectly. Additionally, there is promotion of environmentism through white water rafting. Mountaineering Mountaineering involves the profession of walking, trekking, hiking and climbing up mountains. Mountaineering began with the attempt to reach the highest points of most unclimbed mountains in the world. Depending with the route used to get to the top of mountain, three aspects of mountaineering exist, namely: o Skiing. o Rock-craft o Snow craft. History The first recorded mountain ascent was 5,300 years ago when Orzi climbed more than 3000 meters in the Alps Mountains. Mountaineering Destination Mountaineering is a popular recreational activity throughout the world. In Europe, the Alps offer the best location for this sport. Other popular mountains frequented by climbers are: Europe:-The Pyrenees mountains, Caucasus and Tatra mountains. North America:-Sierra Nevada and Rockies of California, Cascades of Washington, and Alaska high peaks. Asia:-Himalaya, Tien Shan and Pamirs. Japanese Alps Southern Alps of New Zealand. Risk associated with mountaineering o Crevasses pose a great danger especially when traveling on a Glacier. Crevasses are big cracks in the ice which are hard to notice as at times a layer of ice cover them making them invisible. o Falling rocks: Rocky Mountains are very hazardous especially during the day when the sun warmth weakens the bond between the rocks and ice. o Falling ice: ice falls in the broken section of glacier and overhanging cornices. The falling ice should be avoided like falling stones. o Falling from rocks. o Poor visibility. o High altitude sickness. Bungee jumping This is a sport refers to jumping from an elevated structure while tied to a big rubber rope. Heightened thrill come from the free falls as well as from the back bouncing. History of Bungee jumping. Bungee jumping has been used since 1950s as a test of courage. It involved young men jumping from tall wooden structure with their ankles tied to a Vine. It was not until 1979 when the first modernized bungee jumping was made in Bristol. Risks associated with Bungee jumping. Injuries or even death occur when safety precautions are not observed. Some of the possible personal injuries include but not limited to: Rope burn, dislocations, and back injury, cord entanglement etc. Agritourism Agritourism refer to vacation on farms. Tourist travel to a working farm or any agricultural or horticultural operation. During their visits, they actively participate in the farming activities. Tourist learn about crops, ride horses, assist in picking fruits and vegetables, and honey tasting, shop in farm shops for gifts and hand-crafts, visit farm stands for local produce. Other activities that tourist engages themselves in are: o Fee fishing o Harvest celebration festival o Haunted hay rides. o Hot air balloon rides Agritourism promote direct marketing through: o Tourists buy canned food off the farm including: apple butter, honey, jelly, pineapple etc o Tourists have a chance to buy organic and herbal products potpourri, wool, candles, hand-made sweaters. o The pick-your-own concept is embraced in Agritourism. o Tree Renting: Families or individuals can rent a tree, a row of coffee, a row of flowers or any other produce where they can directly tend to the produce. o Roadside stands: these gives farmer a chance to sell their produce directly from the farm to the customer. Farmers markets. Produce and Agritourism services can be displayed at the Agritourism is developing at a fast pace and will soon have it fair share in tourism industry. It is widely practiced in Italy and Spain especially in wine growing farms. In agritourism, the main interest is for people to travel and see how the food they consume is produced, meet the producers and discuss with them on issues related to food production. Many children who visit farms may have never had a chance of seeing a live cow or duck, or even had not have a chance to pick an orange off the tree. Benefits of Agritourism Increased profitability to farmers from agricultural based value added activities. The public get a chance to be educated on the importance of agriculture and its impact on the economy of a country. Increased demand for locally grown produce as tourist feel they are part of the production process. Agritourism promotes development of rural communities. Infrastructure and other tourism related facilities like Hotels, shops, lodges etc are developed. Disadvantages of Agritourism With increased number of tourist visiting a particular rural area, the demand for that region increases leading to increased cost of living for the local communities increase. Atomic tourism This form of tourism is also known as nuclear tourism. The power of atomic energy has altered drastically the world. With this come fears and fascinations that enthrall the public to everything atomic. This has created nuclear tourism as people from all walks of life strive in their endeavors to satisfy their Atomic urge .Tourist travel to important sites associated Atomic History. These sites include sites where atomic bomb were tested and where ground breaking research on atomic energy were done. Recent years have seen the building of museum, dedicated to the history of Atomic energy and the frequencies at which visitors are visiting them is encouraging. Examples of this museums and sites are: o Tinian Airfield, the launch site for Hiroshima Atomic bombing operation. o Los Alamos county museum in Manhattan. o Bradbury science museum. o Nagasaki which was the last site where atomic war bomb were used. o Titan Missile Museum, the only underground missile compound open to public. Tourist travel from across the globe to visit some destinations like New Mexico Mesars, Washington states Columbian basin, Tennessee Mountains all in United States to learn about the atomic age and stand where history was made. Trinity site, deep in the desert of New Mexico Attract thousands of visitor, despite the harsh desert weather, in the two days that's its opened to the public every year. This was the site where the first atomic bomb was exploded. Group such as atomic heritage foundation are the brain behind the preservation of nuclear facilities and rallying the residence to work together to create nuclear tourism. Set-backs-affecting the growths of Atomic tourism are: o Public restriction by the concerned authority from visiting some site as this site is still concerned gorvement facilities. o The need for environmental clean-up aimed at cleaning environmental damages caused by the many year of nuclear research. o With the cold war just a few years behind and the experience still fresh in the mind of many people, the general public has not appreciated fully the whole thing about nuclear tourism. o Most of these nuclear sites have not yet been considered historic sites yet due to the regulation stating that for any site or building to be included in the world register for historic site, it has to be more than 50 years old. Bookstore tourism Book store tourism started in 2003 as an effort to give support to local bookshop owned and operated by locals. Many of this bookstores located in remote areas were in direct competition with large bookstore and online shops. Bookstore tourism include Author home tours, book signing, historical sites tours. Bookstore tourism promotes reading and literacy and it also act as an economic tool by attracting bibliophiles in the local communities. Other section of the communities that benefits from bookstore tourism are: Restaurants, travel professional and bus companies. Drug Tourism Drug tourism involves traveling to another country, state or region with the sole intentions of obtaining drugs that are not sold over the counter or are illegal to use in ones country. It also includes traveling or crossing the border to buy or use narcotics that illegal to use in one country. Drug Tourism Destinations One of the world known major destination where people travel to obtain and use drugs and narcotics is Amsterdam. The Dutch Government is not strict on use and procession of bhang. Maastricht is another Dutch city attracting many drug tourists due to its close proximity with Belgium and Germany. South America and south-east Asia are also favorite's destinations for drug tourist. Lack of uniform legislation for controlling drug use, sale and possession in different countries contribute drug tourism. Risks attributed to Drug tourism People engaging in drug tourism risk prosecution on drug smuggling charges or other charges related to drug. Many cases involving drugs overdose have been reported result to internal body damages and even death. Diseases transmission especially when tourist share needles used to inject drugs. Dark Tourism Dark travel involves traveling to places associated with suffering, grief and death. This site of disaster may be man made or natural. Examples of man made disaster site are Ground Zero in New York, Beaumaris prison which is open to the general public in Wales, Nazi concentration camp in Poland, Holocaust museum and military cemetery. Hurricane Katrina is an example of natural disaster where tourist visitor visits New Orleans Ruins where many people perished from flooding water. Dark tourism may lead to dread and terror from the experience. Disaster tourism This refers to traveling to an area where disasters have occurred to satisfy curiosity. After the hurricane Katrina in the New Orleans area, people traveled from as far as Europe and Asia to visit neighborhood extensively damaged by flooding. Visitor may volunteer in recovery and in donating food aids and blood. Other may travel to help in reconstruction of destroyed home and cities. Disaster tourism can have negative impact as tourist may interfere with recovery efforts. Literary tourism This type of tourism deals with events and places from fictional books and the lives of authors. Tourist travel through the routes described by characters in a fictional novel. They may also travel to track the novelist and related settings in the novel. Of interest to literally tourist is to study how particular creation of a places have been influenced by writing and how particular places have influenced the writing of a particular text. Literary tourists are also a major boost to Bookstore tourism where they visit bookshops to browse for specific titles related to a particular sites and authors. Medical Tourism Traveling to another country or state, for medical treatment is termed as medical tourism. Medical tourism has been practiced for thousands year as people have traveled to far land seeking treatment from healers and doctors. This kind of travel has incredible benefit to those seeking medical attention abroad. With rising cost for simple medical procedures, medical tourism has become very popular allover the world as people travel far away from home looking for low cost medical attention. Cost for cosmetic surgery, dental work and other medical treatment in US and Britain can be ten time the cost for the same procedures in countries like India, Cuba, Mexico. There are many companies worldwide that specialize in organizing medical tourism packages which combines medical procedures with a restful holiday at a low cost compared to what one would spend if the procedure was done at home. Those who cannot get medical attention in timely manner in their country may also opt to seek medical attention in countries where medical tourism thrives as waiting times are short. This way, patients get the attention they need in a timely manner and when it most convenient for them. Benefits of Medical tourism o Savings: Countries in which medical tourism thrives offer low prices on medical procedures compared to many developed countries. The cost of a plane ticket, lodging combined with the cost of treatment in most medical tourist destination can be significantly cheaper. Dental work offers a huge saving but other major and cosmetic surgeries also attract a significant discount. Often hospitals in foreign countries are in a position to give you the estimated cost of treatment upfront, this way you are able to avoid hidden cost common with surgery. Its important for those seeking treatment abroad to check if their health insurance cover treatment abroad so that they don't pay the full cost of operation o Shorter Waiting time: lack of wait and availability is a major benefit for those taking treatment abroad. In most cases, wait time can take months, those seeking urgent treatment would prefer to travel abroad where wait time is significantly short usually within few days or a week. This way one gets the medical attention he went quickly and easily. o Personalized medical care: of benefit to people seeking medical treatment abroad is the fact that one is able to get better and personal care at a foreign hospital than at home. Hospitals that specialize in medical tourism provide quality, outstanding service. Doctors involved in medical tourism are well trained in Europe and United States and many have been certified by highly medical associations. o Medical tourism affords those seeking medical attention a chance for sightseeing before and after treatment. One can spend recovery time rela on a scenic beach or under an umbrella or a mountain resort. In some cases, medical tourism packages may include medical staff on call at the lodging. The huge saving can enable a person to take a friend or relative who presence can be of great help as one feel at home. o Hospitals involved in medical tourism are either corporately or privately owned and due to their competitive nature often exceed care and comfort expectations. Patients benefits from luxury accommodations and private rooms that are more comfortable and nicer than they would afford back home Risks associated with Medical Tourism o Some countries involved in medical tourism lack the capacity to regulate professional certification and licensing of medical doctor. This can endanger the life of those seeking medical in such countries incase unqualified doctor is involved. It's always important for those seeking treatment abroad find out beforehand if doctors to be involved in medical procedures qualified are certified by the relevant medical association. o The legal system of some countries doesn't have provision for compensation incase something goes wrong during and after medical procedure for foreigners. Some insurance companies do not cover additional surgeries and treatment brought about by the overseas operation. o Traveling immediately or within few days after medical procedures like surgery can have far reaching effects to the patients. Blood clot, pulmonary complication brought about by flying at high attitude and sitting for a long time are common and very fatal to those who have undergone surgery. Medical tourist also risks infections and swelling. One should always take time to rest and recover in the countries where medical procedures took place. o Getting medical follow soon after an operation can be complicated. Post operation care is very limited in many hospitals abroad. One has to seek surgical care and check up to ensure the healing is on course and that one is healthy to return home. Getting post operation care can be complicated and costly even when one return home. o The fact that medical tourism combines both treatment and vacation can be risky. One might end up drinking too much or spending most of the time basking in the sun. This and lack of resting can lead to further medical complication. WORLD MAJOR MEDICAL DESTINATIONS Cuba. Cuba has been a major medical tourist destination for the past 40 years. Thousands of patient travel to Cuba from as far as Europe and Latin America. Cuba has a good reputation of fine doctors, warm beaches and low prices. Some of the treatment provided to patients in Cuba include: Cancer Treatment, cosmetic surgery, joint replacement and rehabilitation from addictions. Cost ranges between 60 to 80 percent less compared to United States and Britain. Cuba has hospitals that put focus on foreigners and diplomat, with other that focus on residents who get free health care for life. Cuba has double the number of physicians compared to United States. Germany Germany is well known for its medical excellence. It has for a long time been a medical tourist destination for people from North Africa and Middle East. In recent years, Russians and other Europeans have been traveling to Germany for treatment. Germany doctors are known to be good in Spines Surgery and cancer treatment at much lower prices compared to United States. Mexico In Mexico, dentist charge 50% less compared to dental charges in the United States. This has resulted to fierce competition in this medical field between Mexican Dentist and United states dentists in the Border States. Some United State dentists have opted to cross over to Mexico to take advantage of low cost. Thailand Medical tourism is a fast rising segment of tourism in Thailand. More than one million people travel to Thailand annually for treatment to enjoy low cost of medical procedures brought about low labor cost. Patients also enjoy higher personalized nursing care compared to what one would get in western countries. Most of the patients that travel to Thailand for treatment come from Other Asian Nation like Japan, Nepal, etc. Other popular medical tourist destination are Brazil, Malaysia, India, Costa Rica, South Africa , Ukraine, hongkong, and Turkey are some of the popular destination for medical tourist. Romance Tourism Sex tourism also known as Sex tourism, can be put in to two categories namely o Male sex tourism o Female sex tourism. The most dominant form of romance tourism is Female sex tourism as women travel to other countries usually in groups for the sole purpose of having sex. Women carry cash and gift to give to male prostitutes in exchange for sex. The Caribbean is a major destination for Sex tourist with countries like Jamaica reaping the economical benefits as women travel from Europe to these countries. Sex tourism has it fair share of set backs namely: o Transmission of STDs from the visitors to the locals and vise versa especially when safe sex is not practiced. o Social decay and marriages breakdown as the involved parties leave their partners to engage in prostitution. o Cases of Child Prostitution have been reported in many parts of the world where sex tourism thrives especially when minor are engaged in having sex with tourist. In some cases, tourists have been prosecuted in foreign countries on child prostitution charges. Sport tourism Sport tourists are involved in traveling to particular places to either participate in sport as spectators. People may travel to cities where major games like Olympics are held to participate in those events or simply to sit and watch the games. The world cup is one major event that brings people from a far land to participate in playing football or just watching. Some of the sporting activities that sport tourist involve themselves in are: athletics, tennis, net ball, basket ball, golfing, swimming, hockey, walking, rugby, water sports etc. The economies of some cities relies mostly on visiting rugby and cricket players and supporters, skier, golfers etc. this area of global tourism is growing at a fast pace and in the coming years, it will have clinched more than 10% market share. Sport tourist often engage in other form of tourism due to their passionate nature, and sporting experience. Sport tourism change cultural discernment and as a tool to create job in countries like South Africa and Middle East. World Major Destination of sports tourism Sport tourist is a shifting attraction depending with the season and the kind of sports involved. Some of the major sporting activities that bring a lot of sport tourist together are: o The Olympic Games held every four years in different select countries, some of the past beneficiaries are Korea, Greece, and United States etc. o Fifa world cup, held every four years, past beneficiaries include: Germany, Britain and Brazil. o Africa Nation Cup o Cricket world cup. Besides the major seasonal sporting activities, United Kingdom attracts over 2 million visitors to watch or participate in various sporting activities. Visitors to the UK come from United States, Germany, Irish Republic, France and Netherlands. Sport tourism attracts all kind of people but the young generation takes the lion share. Benefits of Sport tourism Sport tourism is an important economic generator leading to Creation of Business and Job. Canada for example is generating over 8 billion dollars annually from sport related tourism with 40 percent of sport tourist traveling from United States to Canada. Socially, sport and youth are developed through continued participation in sporting activities leading to healthy living. War Tourism War tourism is a recreational travel involving traveling to war zones for sightseeing and meditated culture shock. It's a dangerous form of tourism as tourist their lives in the battle fields. On the end, some countries make the best of its past civil war. Former reformed guerrillas take visitors to their battle field or hide-outs. Museums have been built to exhibit war memorabilia. Examples of such museum are The Museum of the Revolution in Cambodia and Army museum in Hanoi, Vietnam where array of Vietnamese and American military equipment are finely displayed. In Vietnam, tanks are displayed in the battle field and tunnels and caves preserved to attract tourist as a way of dealing with the painful past war memories. Excited tourist flock the limestone caves which were used as the command center, field hospitals, sleeping quarters and as kitchen during the Vietnam War. Luxury resort and golf courses have been built on the battle field to serve war tourist visiting the area. Most tourists who travel to china for war tourism come from France and United State. Hanoi, in Vietnam was the main French base operating in Asia. The fact that the main war was between Vietnam and United States, American travel all the way to see first hand the remain of war that involved more than 6 million Americans directly. Other tourists come from the neighboring Russia, China, Japan and Taiwan. Tunnels that were used by guerrillas during the Vietnam War have been taken over by tourist. Prisons, complete with souvenir are a major attraction to tourist. In the street of Saigon, tourist have a chance to buy hand made gifts war memorabilia like toys tanks and planes crafted from scarp metal, used bullet shell dog tags and prized jewelry. In African, Rwanda has become a war tourist destination as people travel from a far land to have a first hand experience of the after-month of the Genocide that took place in 1994. In Poland, royal castle museum attract visitors from Europe and other region of the world. Benefits of war tourism o The economical benefit associated with war tourism help in rebuilding the affected country. o The growth of service industries like Tour companies, hotels and resort in post war regions contribute in creation of jobs. o People have a chance to see and learn from the effects of war. The message taken back home is that of peace. o Artist help in cleaning up cities and battle field by using used bullet shell and scrap metal to make war memorabilia and jewelry which tourists buy as gifts and take back to their countries. Major Set-back of war Tourism o Tourist risks their lives by running into active mine fields. This active mine fields continue to explode long after the war causing havoc, death and destruction. o War Tourism rekindle bad memory of the war especially where many people perished, example is the Vietnam War which left over 3 million people dead. Old would are opened and the healing process might be a painful one especially to the survivors. Water Tourism Water tourism involves tourist traveling on water discovering the cultural and natural beauties of the place they are visiting. It's an exciting and pleasant form of tourism and mostly involves moving from one luxurious port to the other. The excitement of overcoming in foaming water, the quite privacy in calm water, swimming in calm cold water, and the river banks camp make water tourism very romantic especially for a couple on vacation. Water tourism attracts all kind of people and ages. Some of the Activities that people engage in water tourism are: o Cold water swimming o Scuba diving Some of the major destinations for water tourist are: o Czech Republic o Slovak Wildlife tourism Wildlife tourism is a form of tourism where tourist encounters with non domesticated animals in their natural habitat or in zoological gardens. It involves a range of activities like bird watching, whale watching, general wildlife viewing visiting zoos and aquaria, hunting and recreational fishing. Many tourists nowadays prefer to watch animals in their natural habitat than viewing them in zoological gardens. In most countries, the governing authority has the mandate to control wildlife on state owned land but in some

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