Criminology Essays & Term Papers

181 total

Enduring Issues in Criminology, by Boomstrom, ed., is written in a debate style that allows the reader to compare and contrast major philosophical views such as the rehabilitation debate. This book contains articles of opposing viewpoints on various issues, but we will concentrate on those dealing with rehabilitation. The articles on rehabilitation generally reflect an ideological left or right point of view. Bartollas, a liberal, takes a positivistic approach and supports rehabilitat

Criminology is the scientific study of crime, criminals, criminal behavior, and the criminal justice system. In the United States, it is taught chiefly in departments of criminology and criminal justice of colleges and universities. Criminologists study factors related to crime. Research in criminology involves fields such as sociology, psychology, and psychiatry. Law enforcement greatly depends on criminology. Often, the best method of treating offenders and ways to prevent crime are determi

Forensic Psychology is concerned with emotional and behavioral questions and issues that relate to law and legal systems. Forensic psychologists provide advice to legislators, judges, correctional officers, lawyers and the police. For example, one might be called upon to serve as an expert witness or diagnose and treat incarcerated and probationed offenders. They also screen and evaluate personnel in the law enforcement and judicial systems. Forensic Psychologist set up office in hospitals or

Nathaniel Abraham was eleven years old when he committed the act of murder. Under a 1997 Michigan law a child of any age may be tried as an adult for severe crimes. Abraham was the first juvenile to be tried under this statute. Accused in the murder of Ronnie Lee Greene Jr., Abraham faced first degree murder charges. Now, at the age of fourteen, Nathaniel has been sentenced to a juvenile facility until the age of twenty-one. Oakland County Probate Judge Eugene Moore hopes that rehabil

Determining What Makes A Career Criminal The career criminal, or, more pointedly, those individuals who participate in criminal acts on a regular basis for both a central and constant source of income has, generally, a specific set of identifying factors which, while conclusive in laymen's terms, fail to meet the criteria necessary for scientific inquiry. While definitions exist as to what a career criminal is, the research methods employed in determining these definitions are a larg

Jason C. Clifton Clifton 1 Criminology CRJ 470 Nevelle Jones Assignment 20 July 17, 2000 High Tech Offenders What different kinds of high-tech offenders can you imagine? What is the best way to deal with each such offender? Give reasons for your answers. High-tech crimes hold the potential to vastly change our understanding of crime. Illegal wire transfers of huge asset stores, nuclear subterfuge, and computer crimes are emerging as novel forms of criminal enterprise.

Women s entrance into the criminal justice system, just as well as other professions, has not been a piece of cake. And once they have entered the field there are numerous issues women face daily. Some of these issues deal with the mere fact that they are females in a traditionally male dominated profession. Some of the characteristics affiliated with the criminal justice system is aggressiveness, tough, and very ambitious. Women traditionally do not carry traits, and are subsequently

While the restorative justice movement has risen in recent years, the idea of circle sentencing, or peacemaking circles has been practiced in indigenous cultures for quite some time. As we look at implementing traditional indigenous culture practices as alternative dispute resolutions, we need to realize the effectiveness and also whether we are ready to use them. The Yukon and other communities reintroduced circles in 1991 as a practice of the restorative justice movement (Bazemore, 19

Capital Punishment The most severe sentence used in our nation is capital punishment, or execution. Most of the executions were for murder or rape. However, federal, and military laws have conferred the death penalty for other crimes, including robbery, kidnapping, treason, espionage, and desertation from military service. Because capital punishment can lead to an unequal use of justice, arguments from its supporters should not prevent it from being abolished. One of the most common argum

Many theories have been developed which address the issue of whether people are born criminals in terms of their physical, genetic, or psychological profile, Or whether as sociologists would argue criminals are made by the environment and circumstances which they encounter during their life. There have been theories put forward to suggest that a persons physical characteristics can determine how he/she behaves. The earliest theories were in the eighteenth century, Lavater study on physiognom

Running head: DEATH PENALTY AND CRITICISMS The Death Penalty and Criticisms of Beccaria’s work Troy K. Prichett University of Alabama Abstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss Beccaria’s On Crimes and Punishments, with emphasis on Beccaria’s views on the death penalty and the many criticisms that surrounds his work. Beccaria had extreme views against the death penalty, but he contradicted his views several times. This led to the criticism of his work

Psycho-Analytical Approach to Raskolnikov in Crime and Punishment The essential factors of psycho-analysis that are important in a interpretation of Raskolnikov's behavior in the novel Crime and Punishment, and whose conflict results in Raskolnikov's becoming a criminal are the id, the superego, and the ego. We see that these three parts of Raskolnikov s psyche attribute to his strange behavior and in the end his fate as a criminal. Before beginning an assessment of Raskolnikov s psyche we

Robert Friedman Criminology 360 Dr. Crisp February 02, 2000 Alexis de Tocqueville Alexis de Tocqueville was born in Paris on July 24, 1805. He was born into an aristocratic family and enjoyed a privileged upbringing. In his younger years he had a private tutor. As a young adult, de Tocqueville studied law in Paris. After studying law, de Tocqueville served as a substitute judge in Versailles. At the age of twenty five, de Tocqueville decided to visit the United States a

CRIMINAL MOTIVATION Why did he do it? One of the biggest questions asked in this country today. What was going through his mind? Sometimes a person does not even think about what they are doing before they do it, and a crime is committed. But what about the other people that do think about it? Do they sit around and seriously think about what they are doing? What makes them decide that the risk is worth taking and committing a crime? There are many different interesting theories on why

Indian Police System The Indian constitution assigns responsibility for maintaining law and order to the states and territories, and almost all routine policing, including apprehension of criminals, is carried out by state-level police forces. The constitution also permits the central government to participate in police operations and organization by authorizing the maintenance of the Indian Police Service. Police officers are recruited by the Union Public Service Commission through a compet

The article "Violence to a T" (Ogg 1997, p. 3) is typical of the style and content of crime news reporting found in the mass media. That is, most crime news stories reported in the media misrepresent the "crime problem" by focussing only on certain types of crimes. Those crimes are usually bizarre or unusual events, such as murder or kidnapping. This focus presents the public with the image that the majority of crime involves personal violence. Added to this, the style of presentation adop

To what extent is discrimination a problem affecting the Criminal Justice System? The Criminal Justice System, a system the British government set up to deal with the treatment of law-breakers, has three main goals to achieve social order, these are, (1) enforcing criminal law, (2) maintaining law and order in the society, and (3) helping victims. This may seem to be a well thought of system, but like any other organisation, there are flaws, and one of the major flaws is discrimination, an

ISBN: 0-919584-63-2 NEWS! Directory Grad Programs Information Service Publications WWW Links How to ORDER Back to Publications List Police Use of Deadly Force: Canadian Perspectives Duncan Chappell Linda P. Graham ISBN: 0-919584-63-2 Price: CAN $9.00 Dimensions: 6 x 9 inches Pages: xvii + 195 © 1985 Centre of Criminology, University of Toronto All Rights Reserved This monograph examines an important and, on occasions, controversial subject: the use by Canadian poli

Incarceration, Traditional vs. Alternative Crime is defined as an act or an omission of an act against society. Unfortunately, crime has plagued all of mankind throughout time. Equally, there has always been a question about the methods of dealing with these criminals. Whether it is retaliatory or treatment based, it is generally agreed that the criminal must be punished. The way that society punishes criminal behaviour seems to be a barometer of culture. Punishment signifies a society's valu

On June 22, 1903 a man named John Dillinger was born. He grew up in the Oak Hill Section of Indianapolis. When John was three years old his mother died, and when his father remarried six years later, John resented his stepmother. When John was a teenager he was frequently in trouble. He finally quit school and got a job in a machine shop in Indianapolis. He was very intelligent and a good worker, but he soon got bored and often stayed out all night. His father began to think that the c

A crime as defined in the New Expanded Webster s Dictionary is a breach of law, divine or human. Given this definition a criminal is a person who perpetrates actively breaking the law whether be positive law or natural law. The criminal code of Canada is prescriptive in the actions of the individuals in the society and the formation of the criminal code of Canada comes from the social norms and standards of society. Any person who violates these social norms and standards codified in the c

Crime and Drug Use Throughout my time as a criminal justice student, I have been interested about the relationship between drugs and crime. I have also been amazed by the statistics having to do with the amount of prisioners returning to a correctional facility after their time served. The link between drug use and crime is not a new one. For more than twenty years, both the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute of Justice have funded many studies to try to better

Privatization in Corrections Privatization in corrections is a trend that is assuming increasing significance. Pratt and Maahs, characterizing privatization in corrections as “a growth industry go on to note: “Rooted primarily in the political and economic context of the 1980s. The movement to privatize public services has received increasing support in response to taxpayer demands that government provide more services with fewer resources. Advocates of correctional privatization

Atavism The theory of atavism, also referred to as sociobiology, was a concept developed by the criminologist Cesare Lombroso (1835 - 1909) that offers a biological explanation for criminal deviance. His theory states that criminal deviance is inherited and this inheritance is visible in the shape of the human skull. Through biological determinism Lombroso attempted to show that physical traits would be determinants of criminal behavior. His ideas were part of the 19th century movement known

CRITICALLY CONSIDER TWO PSYSHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIME What is crime? Crime is an act of immoral and harmful behaviour. As crime is prohibited by the criminal law it is seen as an act against society. People who study crime are called criminologists. Criminology has many theories, which are based on biology, sociology and psychology. As we are looking at the psychology side of criminology, this again has many different theories to explain the way criminals behave. There are various theori

Sutherland's Differential Association Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine Edwin Sutherland's theory of differential association. Following a brief history of Sutherland's ideas is a summary of the main ideas and premises of his differential association theory. Also included is a review of studies which attempt to test the validity of Sutherland's theory. Theoretical Criminology attempts to explain theories of why and how crime occurs by examining the various facts related to

Capital Punishment Capital punishment is defined in the Encarta Encyclopedia as the legal infliction of the death penalty. The death penalty is currently used as punishment for crimes of murder. The State of Florida supports capital punishment and carries it out by electric chair execution. According to The Death Row Fact Sheet published by the Florida Department of Corrections, 44 people have been executed since 1976 and another 372 inmates are currently on death row in Florida. …

Should Juveniles be waived to adult court Philosophy 14 Nov 98 Should juveniles be waived to adult court. There has been tension between teens (pre-teens) and adults for thousands of years, and the question how to deal with the youth of a culture, in a punishment sense, has been with us for just as long. Socrates, for example, stated that "children show little respect for there elders." Since Socrates time largely due to the spread of guns and drugs, younger and younger children are com

INTRODUCTION TO WOMEN AND CRIME The majority of crimes committed by females are not violent; in fact, the percentage of women incarcerated for violent offenses been steadily declining over the past two decades. While the percentage of crimes committed by women has always been significantly smaller than those of men, it is important to note the major increase in the number of women arrested for criminal activity (specifically non-violent) over the past few decades. In 1980, there were a littl

INSANITY AS A DEFENSE The insanity defense is a defense that is used in the courts to say the defendant was not aware of what they were doing at the time of the crime. The terms of such a defense are to be found in the instructions presented by the trial judge to the jury at the close of a case. These instructions can be drawn from any of several rules used in the determination of mental illness. The final determination of mental illness rests solely on the jury who uses information

The Criminal Justice System, a system the British government set up to deal with the treatment of law-breakers, has three main goals to achieve social order, these are, (1) enforcing criminal law, (2) maintaining law and order in the society, and (3) helping victims. This may seem to be a well thought of system, but like any other organisation, there are flaws, and one of the major flaws is discrimination, and the bias that stems from discrimination. Discrimination on the basis of cl

Can we assume that people who commit crimes do so because of physical or mental abnormalities? By establishing and discovering the causes of crime, it enables sociologists, welfare states, and governments to attempt to target these areas and therefore strive to reduce criminal activity. In order to respond to the issue appropriately, it is necessary to critically analyse the causes of crime, both from a subjective view point (assessing the individual s pathology or deficiency in his/her abi

-Chapter One Introduction Crime, when discussed or written about, appears initially neutral, meaning you can not differentiate whether the author is writing about men, women or both. References to "offenders" and "criminals" are common language among much criminological literature. Only after considerable reading does it become clear that the subjects concerned are male, not female. Such neglect is often rationalised by suggesting "females represent a small proportion of arrested offen

The recent media obsession with the scared straight program, juvenile boot camps and other scare tactics has lead to the question as to whether they actually are beneficial or not in treating adolescent criminal recidivism. On television programs like Maury (Pauvich) the answer to treating the troubled young girls who are brought to the show is boot camp. Those in charge take these girls to prisons, dangerous streets at night and often morgues to make a visual argument as to where they

Crime and Drug Use federal tax dollars to fund these therapeutic communities in prisons. I feel that if we teach these prisoners some self-control and alternative lifestyles that we can keep them from reentering the prisons once they get out. I am also going to describe some of today’s programs that have proven to be very effective. Gottfredson and Hirschi developed the general theory of crime. It According to their theory, the criminal act and the criminal offender are separate con

Socialization The claim that criminals are unsocialized, or under socialized individuals is not theoretically sound. Socialization is inevitable, and unless individuals are completely isolated, socialization will occur. The problem is not that individuals who commit criminal acts are "unsocialized", but rather that they are socialized in ways that encourage or support violent, or criminal behavior. Numerous theories attempt to explain this type of socialization, and we will look at these i

Juvenile delinquency is a complex social problem that significantly impacts all members and processes of a social structure. Delinquency refers to a set of behaviors that are not in line with the collective practices and/or ethics of the dominant social group. Essentially, these behaviors deviate from societal norms and more specifically they violate established criminal codes and laws. Juvenile delinquency incorporates not only general criminal activity but conduct that is only unlaw

Sigmund Freud, physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist and father of psychoanalysis, is recognized as one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth century. As the originator of psychoanalysis, Freud distinguished himself as an intellectual giant. He invented new techniques and for understanding human behavior, his efforts resulted in one of the most comprehensive theories of psychology developed. Freud was born May 6, 1856 in Freiberg in Moravia (what is now Czechoslovakia)

KWM SOCL 4461 May 07, 2001 The current tone of the criminal justice system, particularly the prosecution phase, emphasizes, “clearing the docket”. While this is true of both civil and criminal courts, it is very much encouraged in criminal matters where the prosecution likely has the upper hand on most, if not all, defendants. As a result, the practice of Plea Bargaining is over used and likely results in many injustices. The fact of the matter is that the state, who is

Rational Choice Theory ? INTRODUCTION The literature supports that many criminals go through a rational choice process when committing crime. The purpose of this paper is to show why the legal system of the United States is based on this theory, and why it is a strong basis for the justice system. This paper will focus on burglary, and the various surveys collected to support rational choice in burglars. HISTORY The justice system of the United States is based heavily on the work

Writing Assignment #2-Question #2 Agnew’s General Strain Theory - Micheal Taylor Robert Agnew’s General Strain Theory (GST) argues that strain or stress is the major source of criminal motivation. He expands upon Merton’s Anomie Theory of strain and stress to include several causes of strain or stress. Agnew categorizes 3 types of strain that produce deviance: the failure to achieve positively valued goals, the loss of positive stimuli, and the introduction of negative stimuli.

As James Farganis (1993) notes, Karl Marx "continues to be of interest . . ." (p. 27) to many sociologists. According to Alan Swingwood (1991), "During the course of the 1840's and 1850's, Marxism emerged as the first sociological theory which identified scientific analysis with the interests of a specific socioeconomic class . . . " (p. 61). Since the notion of socioeconomic class division is discussed frequently in popular subjects such as economics, sociology, psychology, criminology,

Discrimination and the Death Penalty By Katie Matthews "Twenty years have past since this court declared that the death penalty must be imposed fairly, and with reasonable consistency, or not at all, and, despite the effort of the states and courts to devise legal formulas and procedural rules to meet this daunting challenge, the death penalty remains fraught with arbitrariness, discrimination, caprice and mistake." --Justice Harry Blackmun, Feb. 22, 1994. Capital punishment is o

"The Russian mafia dominates economic life in Russia, . . . exerting control over key economic sectors." This is the situation that Russia is currently facing, according to a 1998 study on crime done by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. It is no secret that Russia is in an economic crisis, but the source is not widely known. Many experts have pinpointed the source of the depression to organized crime groups. Emilio Viano, professor of Criminology at American University has said that "These

Criminal behavior used to be howI made it, but that shit s overrated -Everlast, lyricist, 1994. Throughout time, mankind is slowly refining our relationship to society. Because of our increasing population and our constricted placement on earth, we are unremittingly coming closer to physically and mentally living together in a community. Learning to live with one another in a balanced society is a common goal sought for by all people. Despite the fact that millions of humans exist, pe

Sex in Society Sex plays a major role in today's society. From television, radio, music, and advertisements, to video games, the Internet, and even art and pictures, all forms of media use sex to help sell their products. With the public being exposed to so many different types, the overuse and exploitation of sex is common. Is sex a useful tool, or a ploy to get the attention of the public? Before discussing sex in the media, one must understand why it has come to be that people use se

Mark DeOrio December 8, 1999 Dr. Bechtel Criminology Drug Legalization The question of whether to legalize drugs or not is a very controversial and important issue. Drugs affect so many areas of society. Several groups have formed and spoken out regarding their position. Speaking out against drug legalization is the first step in helping to deliver the credible, consistent message about the risks and costs of the legalization of drugs to people in terms that make sense to them. The a

Sex in Society Sex plays a major role in today's society. From television, radio, music, and advertisements, to video games, the Internet, and even art and pictures, all forms of media use sex to help sell their products. With the public being exposed to so many different types, the overuse and exploitation of sex is common. Is sex a useful tool, or a ploy to get the attention of the public? Before discussing sex in the media, one must understand why it has come to be that people u

Throughout history mankind has been using psychics for many different reasons,recently police agencies have called upon them for their services. Although the use of psychics has varied through history they have shown to have very real and helpful powers.In the future the use of psychics will very likely become more accepted and used even more than they are presently. The assistance of psychics in police investigations has increased dramatically in recent years, to the point where psychics

Television Violence and Children Thanks to the miracle of television the average American child watches 8,000 murders and 100,000 acts of violence before finishing elementary school (Early Concerns 113). Television violence is responsible for the increase in childhood violence. Watching violence is a popular form of entertainment, and watching it on television is the number one way that children are exposed to violence. Local news shows provide extensive converage of violent crimes in

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