History: European essay papers

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Chanting peace-paeans as they reaped and gleaned, gazing worldward, on her undrawn sword, watchful as she leaned. (A. Austin, Songs Of England, 1900) TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION: (Pages) • THE ETHICS OF EMPIRE (3-5) • IMPERIALISM REVISITED (5-8) 2. DEFINING MORALITY • THE THEORY (8-9) • THE PRACTICE (9-12) 3. MAIN SECTION: • INTRODUCTION TO TH...
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The fourteenth century witnessed the beginning of remarkable changes in many aspects of the Italian society. In fifteenth century, it spread to Northern Europe, so all these cultural changes have been put together and named renaissance. These cultural changes led to the religious reforms. The need for reform of the individual Christian and institutional church is central to the Christian faith. E...
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History: European essays / Nepolean The Great?
Napoleon The Great?Napoleon was the Arch hero of France (Connely, 87). Napoleon came to power for the French people. He said I took France out of the gutter with my sword, indeed he did. He took France out of the Revolution and took them into evolution (Anon, 99). As a leader he quickly stabled the economy and slowed inflation. Religious order was established, and The Republic of Fra...
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History: European essays / Middle Ages
The idea that the Middle Ages were "dark ages" has been exaggerated a lot. In fact the Middle ages are split into three distinct time periods, which were all quite different from each other. There are the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Despite the reputation for being a time when there were no moves forward in Europe, there were actually many important achievements. The Middle Ages las...
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History: European essays / The Renaissance/ Italy's Decline
World Civilization I The Renaissance/ Italy's Decline Identification: The Renaissance /Italy's Decline Definition: The period in European civilization immediately following the Middle Ages, conventionally held to have been characterized by a surge of interest in classical learning and values. Set in the city-states of Italy in the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the co...
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History: European essays / Cromwell
Greetings dearest cousin! I hope all is well with you and your estate in the Netherlands. You must be relieved with the decade of peace your land has seen since the Treaty of Westphalia. I, however, have not been as fortunate as you have. Much has changed in London since you departed sixteen years ago after the outbreak of the Civil War. Oliver Cromwell, the poor MP from Huntingdon, has r...
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History: European essays / The Renaissance 2
The term renaissance literally means rebirth, and in fact this was a rebirth, a rebirth of civilization. For hundreds of years Europe had been in a state of decay, dominated by an all-powerful Roman Catholic Church, individuality, intellectualism, and free thought had been suppressed. War, diminishing resources and the dreaded plague had taken their toll upon the populations of Europe. It was ...
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History: European essays / Why People Supported Hitler
Hitler began his race for power at a crucial time in German history. The First World War had come to an end and Germany was experiencing its first democratic government, the Weimar Republic. Inflation was a great problem and the population on the whole felt discouraged and cheated. It took Hitler 10 years of campaigning to reach the status of Chancellor during which time he enforced his extremis...
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Changes During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance From the Middle Ages to the Renaissance, Europe underwent a great deal of changes, including attitudes towards learning, science and technology, art and literature, and the way humankind felt about themselves and towards their society. The Middle Ages were the time period between ancient and modern times in western Europe. Before the Middle Age...
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History: European essays / 19Th Century Romanticism In Europe-
19th Century Romanticism in Europe- Romanticism began in the early 19th century and radically changed the way people perceived themselves and the state of nature around them. Unlike Classicism, which stood for order and established the foundation for architecture, literature, painting and music, Romanticism allowed people to get away from the constricted, rational views of life and co...
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History: European essays / The European Renaissance-
The European Renaissance- The Renaissance was a period of European history, considered by modern scholars as that between 1300 and 1600. Many dramatic changes happend during the Renaissance. The Renaissance was a period of new inventions and beliefs. The Renaissance was drastically different from the Middle Ages. During the Middle Ages the church held most of the power and it's...
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History: European essays / The Renaissance
The Renaissance The Renaissance was a period of European history, considered by modern scholars as that between 1300 and 1600. Many dramatic changes happend during the Renaissance. The Renaissance was a period of new inventions and beliefs. The Renaissance was drastically different from the Middle Ages. During the Middle Ages the church held most of the power and it s economy was agricult...
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History: European essays / Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu Cardinal Richelieu was born Armand Jean du Plessis in Paris in September of 1585. The name Richelieu came from the name of his family's estate. The du Plessis' were considered minor nobility and Armand's grandfather, Louis, secured their place in court through marriage to Francoise de Rochechouart, an important family at the time. Louis died young and left five sons, the s...
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History: European essays / The European Renaissance 2
The European Renaissance The Renaissance was a period of European history, considered by modern scholars as that between 1300 and 1600. Many dramatic changes happened during the Renaissance. The Renaissance was a period of new inventions and beliefs. The Renaissance was drastically different from the Middle Ages. During the Middle Ages the church held most of the power and it's...
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History: European essays / Louis Xiv
1638–1715, king of France (1643–1715), son and successor of King Louis XIII.   Early Reign After his father’s death his mother, Anne of Austria, was regent for Louis, but the real power was wielded by Anne’s adviser, Cardinal Mazarin. Louis did not take over the government until Mazarin’s death (1661). By then France was economically exhausted by the Thirty Years War, by t...
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History: European essays / Charlemagne
During the sixth century, after the fall of the Roman Empire, the Merovingian rule had little or no power. The mayor of the palace, “Pepin the short,” held the power of the empire. In 752 Pepin dethroned the last Merovingian king and took the throne for himself and restored the power to the monarchy. He shared the kingdom with his brother Carloman. They ruled the land in harmo...
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History: European essays / The Renaissance 2
The Renaissance Renaissance. To some scholars this is a term, which describes the historic period between the late 14th century and the second half of the 16th century, which was characterized by the rebirth of the cultural and artistic life. To others this is a term, which is misused to describe just one era in history, a term which distinguishes one period too sharply from another. Either ...
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History: European essays / Renaisance 2
The Renaissance, which began in Italy in the fourteenth century, was a period of great change in art, culture, and science. The word "Renaissance" means "Rebirth", this is a perfect word to describe the period. Many of the greatest artists in history, such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, lived during this time period. Renaissance scientists made many great discoveries and played a large p...
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History: European essays / Italian Renissance
The Italian Renaissance was called the beginning of the modern age. The word Renaissance itself is derived from the Latin word rinascere, which means to be reborn. Many dramatic changes occurred during this time in the fields of philosophy, art, politics, and literature. New emphasis was placed on enjoying life and the world around you. Talented individuals sought self-gratification through a...
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History: European essays / Scotland-History And Influence
Scotland History/English Influence Scottish history and English history are the same because they are so close. English influence first appeared in Scotland when Malcolm III (1005-1034) married Princess Margaret. She introduced several reforms to the Scottish Church and imported many English priests into Scotland. She also introduced the English language to Scotland during her life. Th...
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History: European essays / Renaissance In Italy
In part three of Jacob Burckhardt s book, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, he writes that the Italian Renaissance was shaped by ..not the revival of antiquity alone, but its union with the spirit of the people The spirit of the Italian people refers to the way Italians as a group, shared the enthusiasm for antiquity. Burckhardt formulates that this enthusiasm was because the It...
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History: European essays / Medieval Europe
Medieval Europe Medieval Europe followed the fall of the Roman Empire and lasted from 500 AD to 1500 AD. This era represented a low point physically and intellectually. Many church leaders and the Catholic church opposed frivolous activities that might detract from proper commitment to worship and godly living. For example, St. Augustine spoke against dancing because it had degenerated from ...
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The Renaissance was significant on the development of Western Europe and the Impact it had was immense. The Renaissance not only influenced the worlds of art, music, and literature, but also the worlds of politics, religion, and society. During the Renaissance, advancements were made in several areas of technology and in thought. The Renaissance was a key in the development of Western Civil...
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History: European essays / Rennasiance
A booming economy along with the communes desire to obtain political power led to the formation of a new class in society which ultimately lead Europe into a period simply known as the Renaissance. Northern Italy s thriving economy was a result of great advances in shipbuilding. Their ships were capable of sailing year round and could travel even greater distances, which meant they could elimin...
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History: European essays / Frederick The Great And His Father
Frederick the Great and his Father Frederick II, later known as Frederick the Great, was born on January 24, 1712. He was born to the powerful Prussian monarch King Frederick William I and his wife Princess Dorothea of Hanover. Frederick II, was born destined to become a powerful military leader. In his early childhood, Frederick II hated the life of a soldier. His father was very strict...
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History: European essays / Nazi Propaganda
HISTORY ESSAY How did the Nazis ensure that the changes made during the 1930s had a constant public support? Why did they think this support is necessary? The Nazis ensured the changes made during the 1930s had constant public support is by a number of reasons. Germany, being a totalitarian state, used methods to control the population. These are to deal with political, social, economic, and f...
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History: European essays / Brief Look At The Renaissance
Brief Look at the Renaissance The Renaissance, which began in Italy in 1300s, was one of the largest periods of growth and development in Western Europe. The increase in trade caused a abundance in wealth that resulted in the focusing of the arts. Such things as literature, paintings, sculptures and many more works are known to have blossomed from the period known as the Renaissance....
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History: European essays / The Renaissance
The Renaissance, which began in Italy in 1300s, was one of the largest periods of growth and development in Western Europe. The increase in trade caused a abundance in wealth that resulted in the focusing of the arts. Such things as literature, paintings, sculptures and many more works are known to have blossomed from the period known as the Renaissance. Many other important occurrences , ...
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History: European essays / Literary Victorianism
Victorianism, by definition, describes the events and attitudes during the reign of Queen Victoria, which convey notions of prudish, repressed, and old-fashioned, (Landow 3). The Victorian Era consisted of exploration of oneself and the questioning of life and how man came to be. Many advances were made in the fields of literature, religion, and science. Above all, it was an age of para...
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History: European essays / Frederick Ii
Frederick II Frederick II was one of the firsts of many enlightened monarchs of his time a long with Joseph II and Catherine the Great, but he was the prototype for the monarch system. Frederick the II was the most predominate enlightened monarch of his time. It is shown the ways of his policies that he continued from his father. The policies that he made to fit in to the enlightenment. And...
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History: European essays / Niccolo Machiavelli
Machiavelli wrote this book, The Prince,which is about becomming a political leader from examples of his own life. Niccolo Machiavelli lived from 1469 to 1527, saw what we now consider the height of the Italian Renaissance- a period that produced some of Italy's greatest achievements in the arts and sciences, but that also produced horrible scandals and the establishment of foreign ...
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History: European essays / Humanism
The Rebirth As the Middle Ages ended a new era began. The Middle Ages left behind a feudal society with a church dominated culture. This new era, the Renaissance, had an urban economy, with secular control of thought and culture, even religion (Kagan pg. 334). The Renaissance started in Italy and quickly spread throughout Europe forever changing the attitudes towards faith and spirituality. ...
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History: European essays / Eleanor Of Aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine Eleanor of Aquitaine was one of the most influential women in the history of Europe, having been a queen to rulers of both France and England, along with having significant political and economic power in her own right. She served as an example to all women, during a period where there was increasing development in the female’s role in society. Eleanor was a patr...
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History: European essays / The Euro
On January 1, 1999, eleven European countries replaced their national currencies and introduced a single European currency, the Euro. As of then, the Euro is considered to be the official currency in the eleven participating countries. Bills and coins of the national currencies will remain in circulation as sub-denominations of the Euro until January 1, 2002, when they will be exchanged against ...
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History: European essays / Ancient Rome Vs Early Europe
Compare & Contrast Aspects of Life & Society in Ancient Rome, Compared With Those in Early Modern Europe. Throughout history, we have seen the rise and fall of incredible civilizations, societies and ideas. As the Romans prevailed over Europe for one thousand years (from roughly 500 BC to 500 AD), the early modern Europeans from about the 1400's to the 1800's put forward some ideas which were...
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History: European essays / Reunification Of Germany
Introduction Germany lies in central Europe. It borders France, Switzerland, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, and it has a short coastline on the North and Baltic Seas. The northern part of the country is mostly flat. The terrain is hilly in Central and Southern Germany. The Alps run along the border with Austria. More than one quarter of t...
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History: European essays / Fascist Italy Style Over Substance
Fascist Italy Style over substance To what extent is this true of Italy 1924-39 Mussolini did not rule with hand of iron in Italy and he was much more into propaganda and his own popularity. Yet he did achieve some victories for Italy. The substance Vs style issue can be looked at in a number of places e.g. social policy, cult of Mussolini etc Mussolini came to power in 1922 without any c...
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History: European essays / Josef Mengele
Fifteen years ago the world let out a sigh of relief with the discovery of 208 bones and a few rags. For over forty years survivors of the Nazi death camps known as Auschwitz were haunted by the vision of the handsome, well dressed man with a caring smile who pointed his white-gloved finger either left or right deciding who lived (at least for the moment) and who died. Those who passed th...
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History: European essays / Rise Of Adolf Hitler
Weimar and the Rise of Hitler After World War I the allies intended to permanently cripple Germany. Throughthe Versailles Treaty they would do this. The document stole Germany s nationalism,pride, and power. It left Germany helpless and lost. Many believed that Germany had beenabsolutely exploited and cheated under the terms of the treaty. At the time nobody knew,but the Versailles Treaty w...
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History: European essays / Renaissance Figures
Cosimo de' Medici, also known as Cosimo the Elder, lived from 1389–1464. He was the first Medici to rule Florence. He was exiled from Florence in 1433, but he returned in 1434 and doubled his wealth through banking. He ended Florence's traditional alliance with Venice and supported the Sforza family in Milan. His historical significance was being a patron to such artists a...
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History: European essays / French Canadians In Ne
French Canadians & The Blackstone Valley John J. Barron Ethnicity in Massachusetts Wed. 12:30 The French have a lengthy history on this continent. The French became interested in the "New World" in 1524 when King Francois I sought wealth for his European domain (Brown 19). Expeditions were underwritten by the crown. It was eager to compete with other European powers in search ...
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History: European essays / Boston Massacre
John Hancock stated “Let this sad tale of death never be told without a tear; let not the heaving bosom cease to burn with a manly indignation at the barbarous story . . .” during his oration of the massacre on 5 March 1774. The “Boston Massacre” as it was called, was really not a massacre in the sense that a lot of people were slaughtered, it was a massacre in the sense that Br...
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History: European essays / Boston Massacre
In my report I will be discussing the Boston Massacre. I will be looking at the Boston Massacre from three different perspectives. These perspectives are the Boston colonists and Samuel Adams, Tom Hutchinson, Lieutenant Governor and Acting Governor in 1770, and Captain Preston and his troops. I will also hold some depositions from people who were actually close or at the massacre. I...
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"Marx's thought a product of its time." Discuss. Karl Marx was an individual who has influenced a great many individuals thought, even though he has been dead for over than forty years. The work of Marx continues to influence intellectual thought in some of the most remote countries. Marx's influence is important on the intellectual development of others, hence it is vital to study the...
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History: European essays / Greek Essay
Greek Legacy Essay The Greek culture of 2000 BC through 146 BC was one of the most sophisticated, intellectual, and had some of the great thinkers of their time. Their architecture, writing, military tactics, lifestyle and philosophy were copied by countless civilizations to come. Even though (civil) war raged often among the Greeks they prospered to find a place in history. Starting in 1650...
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History: European essays / Dante's Inferno
"COMPASSION FOR THE SOULS WHO INHABIT HELL" Dante's Inferno is a 14th- century poem that seems calculated to cause the greatest possible pain to a 20th-century humanist, or to anyone who is attracted to Christianity because of its compassion and belief in the possibility of redemption. The God of the Inferno has precious little compassion and no forgiveness. He was the God who not only turned...
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History: European essays / Dietrich Bonhoeffer
Dietrich Bonhoeffer Dietrich Bonhoeffer was born on February 4th 1906, as a son of a professor of psychiatry and neurology at the University of Berlin. Throughout his early life he was an outstanding student, and when he finally reached the age of 25 he became a lecturer in systematic theology at the University Berlin. Something that is very striking is that when Hitler came to power in ...
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Mary the first was born on FEB. 18. 1516 at GREENWICH PALACE. I WAS THE DAUGHTER OF HENRY THE 8 AND CATHRINE THE FIRST OF ARGON. I WAS A GOOD STUDENT AND ACCOMPLISHEND LINGUIST. I LEARNED LATIN, FRENCH, SPANISH, ITALIAN, AND GREEK. I STUDIED ASTRONOMY, NATURAL SCIENCE, AND MATH. I PLAYED MUSIC, DANCED, AND EMBROIRED. MY FATHER WANTED ME TO MARRY MY HALF BROTHER BUT I DIDNT BECAUSE HE WO...
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History: European essays / Absolutism
Absolutism Absolutism or absolute monarchy is the form of government where the king possesses complete control of the government and people in his country; the king's word is law. Many factors lead to Absolute Monarchy in France, and the style of Absolute Monarchy under Louis XIV differed from traditional Absolute Monarchy. The political and cultural history of France from 149...
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History: European essays / The Crimean War
Although the Crimean War was a great victory for the allied British, French, and Turkish forces, the war was characterized by a catalogue of misunderstandings, and misapprehensions by these forces. The mental mistakes made by the Allied forces accounted for many unnecessary deaths of their soldiers, and allowed the Russians to battle back in a war that they seemingly lost from the outset. A joi...
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History: European essays / Magna Carta
The effects of the Magna Carta on the development of Modern Civilization. The Magna Carta is on of the most famous and most important documents ever written. It is a phrase written in Latin, and it means GREAT CHARTER. The Magna Carta granted liberties to Englishmen under the rule of King John, in 1215. John signed it under the threat of civil war and reissued it with alterations in 1216, 1217...
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History: European essays / Juan Ponce De Leon
Ponce De Leon, Juan (A WORLD EXPLORER) Juan Ponce De Leon was born in 1460 in the town of San Saros in the province of Santeros de Combo in the kingdom of Leon. He was educated in Seville in the Hall of Euridides. The son of a knight, he wanted to be a soldier, but, as was the custom, first one had to be a page and then a squire, before becoming a soldier. Juan really wanted to ...
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History: European essays / Napoleon As A Dictator
Despot, noun. A ruler with absolute power and authority. The word has come to have a connotation of a dictatorial-style government. On the other hand, an enlightened despot has the implication of one man who is ruling for the people. While it can still be considered absolutist, because of the absence of a system of checks and balances, the enlightened despot is generally someone whose interest ...
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History: European essays / Fudelism
Feudalism "Feudalism comes from the word comes from a Latin term for fief. Fiefs were the estate or land granted by a lord in return for a vassals loyalty and service." Feudalism Started in the 900 AD and was a medieval contract relationship among the European upper classes, by which a lord granted land to The Knight in return for military service and other services like food and clothing...
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History: European essays / Outline On The World War Era In Holland
I. World War I A. Allies then put them under strict quotas - could only receive pre-war imports and exports. 1. Netherlands Trust set up to monopolize and administer the rigid quota of imports allowed into Holland through Allied Blockade. 2. Allies even attempted to prevent Dutch sales to Germany. B. Were not occupied in WWI 1. This was mainly because the Germans wanted use of...
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History: European essays / Absolutism In France
King Louis XIV of France tamed the nobility by making them the only ones that knew how to behave in the king's society at Versailles. Thus allowing him the power to grant positions to aristocracy without truly yielding any political power. Louis was a very strict king, and gave up luxuries for beauty. For example he didn't want the palace to look sinister from the gardens, so he didn't build up...
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History: European essays / Hitler's SS: Murder And Loyalty
What role did the SS, or Schutzstaffel play for Germany? The SS, or Schutzstaffel, played a variety of roles before and during World War II, showing a twisted versatility between loyalty to Hitler and patriotism. From their beginning as personal bodyguards, through their emergence as an elite fighting force, to their establishment of a vast business of concentration camps, these "men in black...
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History: European essays / The Age Of Transition
The period of time from the 1350 to 1650 in Europe has been called the "Age Of Transition." A group of people known as the middle class played a significant role during this time, and more specifically in the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, the Commercial Revolution, and the rise of national monarchies. Around the mid 14th century, Italy began to grow rich from trade with the Mid...
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History: European essays / The Invention Of The Printing Press
THE INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS The printing press was a wonderful invention that aided in the education of many. But before we go into that, let me tell you a little about this contraption. Invented in 1456 my Johann Gutenberg, he printed the Bible, now know as the Gutenberg Bible. This innovative device worked by moveable metal type which took a lot of time to set up, but was we...
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History: European essays / Fascist Italy: Second Edition.
Cassels viewed Fascist Italy as an enormous trick carried out on the Italian nation by Benito Mussolini. In the United States during World War II, it was smart to promise the Italo-American portion of the electors that war was being waged. Winston Churchill appealed to the Italian people because he was responsible for guiding his country to disaster. He disagreed with the people which put him i...
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History: European essays / The French Revolution
Written By: Jamie Janczak Essay - The French Revolution France's Old Regime was rigidly divided into social classes called estates. The country was ruled by an absolute monarchy, and the regulations of mercantilism governed wages and prices. The Roman Catholic Church also owned one-tenth of France's land. In 1789, a mob in Paris stormed the Bastille, a prison. This marked the beginning...
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History: European essays / Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II Queen of England, Scotland, and Northern Ireland Queen Elizabeth II is still queen of England ,which she has held that job since 1952. Queen Elizabeth II successor will be her son Charles Prince of Wales who married and divorced Lady Diana Spencer or Princess Diana. Queen Elizabeth lives a very interesting life which I will tell you about in the next few paragraphs...
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History: European essays / Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte had many different sides to him and to many faces to count. To some, he was an extraordinary military commander who led an army to victory. To others, he was a distinguished civil administrator, and yet others thought of him as a great man that was tossed complicated twists in his short life. He is both a historical figure and a legend and it is sometimes difficult to separate ...
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History: European essays / Deescalation/Negotiation In N.Ireland
The crisis situation existing in Northern Ireland today provides an ideal setting for a thorough analysis upon the nature of conflict. As this may encompass an entire discipline in and of itself, it becomes necessary then to limit this study to several specific analytical elements of conflict. As a direct result of recent articles from the New York Times, the factors of conflict de-escalation an...
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History: European essays / Castles Of Conquest Term Paper
Castles of the Conquest William the Conqueror knew that the castle was going to play a vital role in his task of subjugating England in the year 1066. This conquest was no doubt a large gamble for the duke of Normandy due to the fact that it entailed a relatively unknown countryside, a fierce and brave people defending the island, and in the event of a loss – a reputation of a poor war ...
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History: European essays / Ferdinand Magellan
Magellan lived a short life of about 40 years. Magellan was born around 1480 in Oporto, Portugal. There is little known about Magellan's childhood, but we do know that when he was 12 years old, he was a page at the Portuguese court. While Magellan was a page, he met another page named Francisco Serrao. Serrao turned out to be a friend to Magellan for both of their entire lives. Serrao also gr...
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History: European essays / European Explorers
THE VIKINGS Vikings had several kinds of ships according to what they would be used for and what kind of water they would have to sail, but the basic pattern was the same for them all. There were two main types: warships and transport ships. The bow and the poop were alike, so, in case it was neccesary to go backwards, they only had to row the other way. The keel was the most important part a...
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The word Renaissance means "rebirth," and it truly was. It was thought that the human spirit had truly awakened from the Middle Ages. People of the Renaissance and the Age of Enlightenment saw themselves as living in a new age, which arose out of darkness and barbarism. And their perceptions were accurate, due to drastic changes in art, literature, and schooling to name a few. The first aspect...
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Through the advancement of a country, it must undergo serious political disagreements in order to decide what is best for the country. Revolutions occur, and the country is improved because of them. The predominantly seventeenth century English revolution and the eighteenth century French Revolution are prime examples of this. However, these two revolutions are very different. The impact the revo...
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The Russian Revolution Each great empire reaches a major peak, followed by a gradual downfall. The Russian empire met its peak from 1894-1917. Its downfall was caused by several contributing factors. The government had lost the trust and loyalty of the people. Nicholas II also held a leading role in the downfall, as well as World War I First, the collapse of the downfall was due to the uns...
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Democratic Revolution During the second half of the eighteenth century, a revolution called the Democratic Revolution took place in Europe. This was a time when many main aspects of modern democracy were reformed. The Democratic Revolution dramatically changed the governments of Europe, and affected both sides of the Atlantic. The Revolution was known to be democratic due to its classlessnes...
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Compare Joe II/Fred the Great The age of Enlightenment can most easily be defined as a time of significant progress in Europe. The leaders which fall into this category of being philosophes are known as enlightened despots. However, this did not necessarily mean that each leader felt the same way about what would contribute to most progress to their country. Joseph II of France, and Fredrick t...
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After the middle ages, a firm, structural religious base was needed to fulfill the ever-changing lives of the Europeans. The Christian church was dominant throughout Europe, as it is today, but it was not the dependable foundation that Europe needed. The religious environment was negative and contradicted all original Christian beliefs. This nearly secular Christian religion created an environment...
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Impact of Africa, Asia, and America Modern European history can be compared to the fashion and entertainment business; in that many lesser celebrities may mimic the style or motif of a more recognized one. Europe, being the "less famous" celebrity, borrowed ideas from other continents in order to strengthen their development. Whether it was trade or economy, Europe tended to be unoriginal, per...
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In American schools, it is taught in history classes that there was a Renaissance, or "rebirth," in Europe up until the 17th century. This was known for being a glorious religion period, with art as an example. However, there are two separate Renaissances, one in Italy, and one in northern Europe. These two renaissances each share common elements and also have distinctive differences. First, ...
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B.O.P. essay Without losers, there would be no winners. Moreover, if there were no evil in the world, then kindness would not exist. This is exactly the way the principle of balance of power in Europe operates. It prevented empires, and helped to aid lesser states in their times of need. The principle of Balance of Power was historically used to preserve the independence of European states, pa...
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History: European essays / Traits Of A Modern World
Traits of the Modern World Modern ideas are first formed from a simple hypothesis, with little evidence and much hope of truth lying beneath. These ideas become more greatly researched, and develop and change over time, due to more evidence. The modern societies today are such as this, with greatly updated advancement, but true to their original roots, of ancient times, when the beliefs and id...
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History: European essays / The Russian Revolution
The Russian Revolution, 1917 1917 was the year of the Russian Revolution; but that Revolution, the Russian Revolution, contained two phases, or two specific revolutions. The first, or April Revolution, took place one evening in April, 1917; on that night, the Imperial Russian Empire, the autocratic and orthodox Russian monarchy known as Tsarism "simply ceased to exist." As revolutions go, this w...
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History: European essays / Industrial Revolution And Its Agricultur
The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the shift, at different times in different countries, from a traditional agriculturally based economy to one based on the mechanized production of manufactured goods in large-scale enterprises. The first Industrial Revolution occurred in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century; it profoundly altered Britain's econ...
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History: European essays / The Effects Of The Black Death On Europe
The Black Death, also known as the Bubonic Plague, was Europe's deadliest pandemic plague of the Middle Ages. It was extremely fatal and had terrible symptoms of painful swellings; called buboes, appear in the groin or armpit.1 The bacillus was highly contagious and if contracted could kill within hours. This horrible plague touched down in Europe in the fall of 1347 and swept across it through...
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History: European essays / ROMANY GYPSY LIFE
For many years Gypsies have been thought of as dirty smuggling peasants. Many books have been written and many stories told falsely portraying the lifestyles of Gypsies in general. Manfri Fredrick Wood, a true Romany Gypsy, heard the stories, read the books and was disappointed to see that these books were being read and stories being told because they were,"either for the most part nonsense, or...
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Protestantism began to come about during the Reformation in the Sixteenth century. Before the Reformation the predominant religion was Catholicism. The Reformation was a time period in which the people went against the church and decided to change their beliefs. Martin Luther broke away form the church in 1517 and started the Protestantism movement1 , this gradually began to spread through Europe ...
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History: European essays / French Revolution
On June 23, 1789, Louis XVI proposed a major overhaul of the financial system. He agreed to seek the consent of the deputies for all-new loans and taxes, and proposed other important reforms. He inspired new fears by surrounding the meeting hall of the deputies with a large number of soldiers. Despite much rejoicing, suspicions of the king's intentions ran high. Royal troops began to thicken near ...
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Account for the rise to power of Hitler and the Nazi party The explanation of the rise of Nazism cannot be restricted to one specific time period or one specific event - the source of many Nazi ideologies are found before WW1.Many pre-war conditions(but especially the gradual 'collapse of liberalism',of which I will write later) helped to prepare the public psyche for National Socialist poli...
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History: European essays / The Spanish Inquisition
The word "inquisition" means to examine. Inquisitors would "examine" suspected Heretics, people whose ideas do not match those of the Roman Catholic Church, and punish them accordingly. This meant torture and burning was involved. The great inquisitional movement that took place in Hispania (before Spain was unified, the area was known as Hispania), and it was called The Spanish Inquisiti...
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History: European essays / The Mystery Of Atlantis
THE MYSTERY OF ATLANTIS "In what way is the question about the existence of Atlantis best answered - as a continent in the Atlantic, a myth invented by Plato, or as the story of Minoan civilization?" The probability that the lost city of Atlantis may have been Minoan Crete is the most persuasive explanation although it did not answer some remaining questions. Although Plato's literature may...
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History: European essays / Renaissance
Political Effects of the Renaissance History has shown us how civilizations evolve over time. Broadly interpreted, the age of Diocletian marked a decisive stage in the transition from the classical, the Greco-Roman, civilization of the ancient Roman Empire to the Christian-Germanic civilization of the early Middle Ages. Similarly interpreted, "the age of the Renaissance marked ...
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History: European essays / Genocide In The Former Yugoslavia
Genocide in the Former Yugoslavia The Catholics, Muslims, and Orthodox Christians in the former Yugoslavia have been fighting for centuries. They fight for land, they fight for ideas, and they fight for proof that they are best race. The fighting between these three have taken a devastating turn in the latter part of the 20th century. The Serbs (Orthodox Christians) have systematically kil...
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History: European essays / Sir John A Macdonald
Sir John Alexander Macdonald Macdonald was born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1815. His father, Hugh Macdonald, set up a small manufacturing business in Glasgow. The business failed, and the Macdonald family immigrated to Canada when John was five years old. It was only through the perseverance of his mother that Macdonald received a good education. At the age of ten Macdonald was sent away ...
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History: European essays / Nazi Experiments
The Validity of Nazi Hypothermia Experimentations: The Question of Ethics Versus Scientific Knowledge. This essay deals with medical experiments conducted by the Nazis during the Second World War. Many types of experimentation occurred in the Third Reich, they include euthanasia, hypothermia, high pressure, and genetics. However, most of the experiments carried out in Nazi...
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History: European essays / Thinkers Of The Enlightenment
After the Middle Ages, peasants moved from rural areas to towns in search of increased freedom. They soon began to realize that things need not follow the traditions that dated back centuries, that they had a right to form their own ideas, own opinions, and own system of government despite their status. The two obstacles they faced were absolutist kings and dogmatic churches, yet...
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History: European essays / Elizabeth I
"The Virgin Queen" is one of the most famous names in history. She is not only known for her stubbornness to remain single, she was also probably the greatest ruler of England. She used her beauty and femininity to get what she wanted. And it worked. A large part of her success were her relations with her subjects. It was extremely important to her to be on good terms with them. ...
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History: European essays / Napoleon
Napoleon Bonaparte was destined for greatness right from the start. Napoleon himself is quoted as saying, "I realized I was a superior being and conceived the ambition of performing great things which hitherto had filled my thoughts as only a fantastic dream." When he was only 24 years old, his own artillery pushed the British out of France. It was only three years later that he was given...
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Recently, our planet Earth celebrated a milestone. We now have six billion people living here. Unfortunately for us, Earth has a projected carrying capacity of 11-12 billion people. With such a perple problem in our midst, it is important to examine what scientists of old have to say about our growing population. It is also important to examine whether old theories are still valid today. One...
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History: European essays / Westinerazation Of Russia
1. Louis XIV lived up to the title "Le Grand Monarch" by building the great place of Versailles and by bring the arts back to France. He surrounded himself with luxury and had only the finest things money could buy. Yet he probably still hurt his country more than he helped it and I don't think he was worthy of the title "Le Grand Monarch". 2. Versailles what the palace that was ordered to...
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History: European essays / The Renaissance
The Renaissance, which started in Italy, provided great advancements in the quality of life to the Europeans during the 1300's through the late 1500's. Increased trade provided Europe with an abundance of weath,which allowed culture to flourish. People focused much of their time on art and literature during this era. Many religious changes took place during the Renaissance, partly due to th...
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History: European essays / Duomo, Florence
Duomo Florence The Duomo is a distinctive feature of the Florence skyline. The Duomo Cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore, located due north of the Piazza della Signoria was begun by the sculptor Arnolfo di Cambio in 1296. Many local artists continued working on it for the following century and a half. The painter Giotto designed its Sturdy campanile (Bell Tower) in 1334. Opposite the Duomo stands B...
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History: European essays / French Revolution
From the beginning of the 20th century until the 1970s, the French Revolution was most commonly described as the result of the growing economic and social importance of the bourgeoisie, or middle class. The bourgeoisie, it was believed, overthrew the Old Regime because that regime had given power and privilege to other classes-the nobility and the clergy-who prevented the bourgeoisie from ...
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History: European essays / Protestant Reformation
The Reformation of the Roman Catholic Church was a major 16th-century religious revolution. A revolution, which ended the ecclesiastical supremacy of the pope in Western Christendom and resulted in the establishment of the Protestant, churches. With the Renaissance that preceded and the French Revolution that followed, the Reformation completely altered the medieval way of life in Western Europe...
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History: European essays / Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler is Born At 6:30 p.m. on the evening of April 20, 1889, he was born in the small Austrian village of Braunau Am Inn just across the border from German Bavaria. Adolf Hitler would one day lead a movement that placed supreme importance on a person's family tree even making it a matter of life and death. However, his own family tree was quite mixed up and would be a lifelong sour...

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